Refinery Solid and Hazardous Wastes

According to a USEPA survey, many of the more than 150 separate processes used in petroleum refineries generate large quantities of hazardous wastes. Typical wastes generated from refinery processes include bottom sediments and water from crude storage tanks, spent amines, spent acids and caustics, spent clays, spent glycol, catalyst fines, spent Streford solution and sulfur,

Table 8 Topping Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

_Probability of occurrence, percent less than or equal to_

Parameters__10__50 (median)__90

Table 8 Topping Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Parameters__10__50 (median)__90

bod5

1.29 (0.45)

3.43 (1.2)

217.36 (76)

COD

3.43 (1.2)

37.18 (13)

486.2 (170)

TOC

1.09 (0.38)

8.01 (2.8)

65.78 (23)

TSS

0.74 (0.26)

11.73 (4.1)

286 (100)

O&G

1.03 (0.36)

8.29 (2.9)

88.66 (31)

Phenols

0.001 (0.0004)

0.034 (0.012)

1.06 (0.37)

Ammonia

0.077 (0.027)

1.20 (0.42)

19.45 (6.8)

Sulfides

0.002 (0.00065)

0.054 (0.019)

1.52(0.53)

Chromium

0.0002 (0.00007)

0.007 (0.0025)

0.29 (0.1)

Flowb

8.00 (2.8)

66.64 (23.3)

557.7 (195)

"Values represent kg/1000 m3 (lb/1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput.

b1000 m3/10003 feedstock throughput (gallons/bbl).

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon;

TSS, total suspended solids; O&G, oil and grease.

Source: From Ref. 7.

"Values represent kg/1000 m3 (lb/1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput.

b1000 m3/10003 feedstock throughput (gallons/bbl).

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon;

TSS, total suspended solids; O&G, oil and grease.

Source: From Ref. 7.

coking fines, slop oil, and storage tank bottoms. Most are hazardous wastes. Figure 8 shows a refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid wastes in refinery systems [18].

Also, the plant's utility systems often contribute to the volume of waste. Utility water systems generate raw water treatment sludge, lime softening sludge, demineralizer regenerants, and cooling tower sludge. These wastes may or may not be hazardous, depending on characteristics such as pH and metal concentrations. Figure 9 shows a refinery schematic

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