According to the literature [3,17,33], the heterogeneous nature of fertilizer production plants precludes the possibility of presenting a "typical" case study of such a facility. Nevertheless, the wastewater flows, the characteristics, and the treatment systems for a phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer plant were parts of a large fertilizer manufacturing facility. The full facility additionally included an ammonia plant, a urea plant, a sulfuric acid plant, and a nitric acid plant. The typical effluent flows were 183 m3/hour (806 gpm) from the phosphoric plant and 4.4 m3/hour (20 gpm) from the water treatment plant associated with it, whereas in the N-P-K plant they were 420 m3/hour (1850 gpm) from the barometric condenser and 108 m3/hour (476 gpm) from other effluent sources.
These wastewater effluents had quality characteristics that could be described as follows:
1. In the phosphoric acid plant, the contributing sources of effluent are the cooling tower bleedoff and the scrubber liquor solution that contains concentrations ranging for phosphate from 160 to 200 mg/L and for fluoride from 225 to 7000 mg/L.
2. In the water treatment plant, the wastewater effluent is slightly acidic in nature.
3. In the N-P-K plant, the barometric condenser effluent has a pH range of 5.5-8, and concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen of about 250 mg/L, fluoride of about 10 mg/L, and trace levels of phosphate.
4. The N-P-K plant's other effluents contain concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen of about 2000 mg/L, fluoride of about 350 mg/L, and phosphate of about 3000 mg/L.
The wastewater treatment systems utilized for the phosphoric acid and N-P-K plant effluents are shown in Figure 13. As can be seen, the cooling tower bleedoff and scrubber liquor from the phosphoric acid plant are treated together with N-P-K plant effluents by a two-stage lime slurry addition to precipitate out the phosphates and fluorides, reducing them to levels of less than 10 mg/L. The treated effluent pH is adjusted to 5.5-7 using sulfuric acid, and it is discharged to a river, while the precipitated slurry containing the phosphates and fluorides is disposed of in lagoons. As can be seen in the right-hand side of Figure 13, the effluent of the barometric condenser has its pH adjusted to 11 by adding lime to remove residual ammonianitrogen, and subsequently waste steam is introduced to remove free ammonia, and the final effluent is mixed with the water treatment plant effluent prior to discharge in a river.
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