Nemerow  summarized the major characteristics of wastes from phosphate and phosphorus compounds production (i.e., clays, slimes and tall oils, low pH, high suspended solids, phosphorus, silica, and fluoride) and suggested the major treatment and disposal methods such as lagooning, mechanical clarification, coagulation, and settling of refined wastewaters. The
various wastewater treatment practices for each of the six subcategories (Table 3) of the phosphate manufacturing industry were summarized by the USEPA  as shown in Table 15. The percent removal efficiencies indicated in this table pertain to the raw waste loads of process effluents from each of these six subcategories. As can be seen from Table 15, the predominant method of removal of primary pollutants such as TDS, TSS, total phosphate, phosphorus, fluoride, sulfate, and for pH adjustment or neutralization is lime treatment followed by sedimentation.
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