Phosphates may be removed from wastewaters by the use of chemical precipitation as insoluble calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, and iron phosphate . The liming process has been discussed previously, lime being typically added as a slurry, and the system used is designed as either a single- or two-stage one. Polyelectrolytes have been employed in some plants to improve overall settling. Clarifier/flocculators or sludge-blanket clarifiers are used in a number of facilities . Alternatively, the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process is both technically and economically feasible for phosphate and fluoride removal, according to Wang et al. [39-43] and Krofta and Wang [44-48]. Both conventional biological sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and innovative physicochemical sequencing batch reactors (PC-SBR) have been proven to be highly efficient for phosphate and fluoride precipitation and removal [32,43].
A number of aluminum compounds, such as alum and sodium aluminate, have also been used by Layer and Wang  as phosphate precipitants at an optimum pH range of 5.5-6.5, as
have iron compounds such as ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, and spent pickle liquor . The optimum pH range for the ferric salts is 4.5-5, and for the ferrous salts it is 7-8, although both aluminum and iron salts have a tendency to form hydroxyl and phosphate complexes. As reported by Ghokas , sludge solids produced by aluminum and iron salts precipitation of phosphates are generally less settleable and more voluminous than those produced by lime treatment.
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