Ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizing agent that has been used for disinfection due to its bactericidal properties and its potential for removal of viruses. It is produced by discharging air or oxygen across a narrow gap with application of a high voltage. An ozonation system is presented in Fig. 20.

Ozonation has been used to treat a variety of wastewater streams and appears to be most effective when treating more dilute types of wastes [29]. It is a desirable application as a

Figure 19 Schematics of a chlorination system.

Recycle of oxygen

Figure 20 Simplified diagram of an ozonation system.

Recycle of oxygen

Figure 20 Simplified diagram of an ozonation system.

polishing step for some seafood-processing wastewaters, such as from squid-processing operations, which is fairly concentrated [30].

Ozone reverts to oxygen when it has been added and reacted, thus increasing somewhat the dissolved oxygen level of the effluent to be discharged, which is beneficial to the receiving water stream. Contact tanks are usually closed to recirculate the oxygen-enriched air to the ozonation unit. Advantages of ozonation over chlorination are that it does not produce dissolved solids and is affected neither by ammonia compounds present nor by the pH value of the effluent. On the other hand, ozonation has been used to oxidize ammonia and nitrites presented in fish culture facilities [31].

Ozonation also has limitations. Because ozone's volatility does not allow it to be transported, this system requires ozone to be generated onsite, which requires expensive equipment. Although much less used than chlorination in fisheries wastewaters, ozonation systems have been installed in particular in discharges to sensitive water bodies [4,32,33].

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation

Disinfection can also be accomplished by using ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a disinfection agent. UV radiation disinfects by penetrating the cell wall of pathogens with UV light and completely destroying the cell and/or rendering it unable to reproduce.

However, UV radiation system might have only limited value to seafood-processing wastewater without adequate TSS removal since the effectiveness decreases when solids in the discharge block the light. This system also requires expensive equipment with high maintenance [34]. Nevertheless, UV radiation and other nontraditional disinfection processes are gaining acceptance due to stricter regulations on the amount of residual chlorine levels in discharged wastewaters.


Land application of wastewater is a low capital and operating cost method for treating seafood-processing wastes, provided that sufficient land with suitable characteristics is available. The ultimate disposal of wastewater applied to land is by one of the following methods:

• percolation to groundwater;

• overland runoff to surface streams;

• evaporation and evapo-transpiration to the atmosphere.

Generally, several methods are used for land application, including irrigation, surface ponding, groundwater recharge by injection wells, and subsurface percolation. Although each of these methods may be used in particular circumstances for specific seafood-processing waste streams, the irrigation method is most frequently used. Irrigation processes may be further divided into four subcategories according to the rates of application and ultimate disposal of liquid. These are overland flow, normal irrigation, high-rate irrigation, and infiltration-percolation.

Two types of land application techniques seem to be most efficient, namely infiltration and overland flow. As these land application techniques are used, the processor must be cognizant of potential harmful effects of the pollutants on the vegetation, soil, surface and groundwaters. On the other hand, in selecting a land application technique one must be aware of several factors such as wastewater quality, climate, soil, geography, topography, land availability, and return flow quality.

The treatability of seafood-processing wastewater by land application has been shown to be excellent for both infiltration and overland flow systems [2]. With respect to organic carbon removal, both systems have achieved pollutant removal efficiencies of approximately 98 and 84%, respectively. The advantage of higher efficiency obtained with the infiltration system is offset somewhat by the more expensive and complicated distribution system involved. Moreover, the overland flow system is less likely to pollute potable water supplies.

Nitrogen removal is found to be slightly more effective with infiltration land application when compared to overland flow application. However, the infiltration type of application has been shown to be quite effective for phosphorus and grease removal, and thus offers a definite advantage over the overland flow if phosphorus and grease removal are the prime factors. One factor that may negate this advantage is soil conditions are not favorable for phosphorus and grease removal and chemical treatment is required.

Irrigation is a treatment process that consists of a number of segments:

• aerobic bacterial degradation of the deposited suspended materials and evaporation of water and concentration of soluble salts;

• filtration of small particles through the soil cover, and biological degradation of entrapped organics in the soil by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria;

• adsorption of organics on soil particles and uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by plants and soil microorganisms;

• uptake of liquid wastes and transpiration by plants;

• percolation of water to groundwater.

The importance of these processes depends on the rate of application of waste, the characteristics of the waste, the characteristics of soil and substrata, and the type of cover crop grown on the land.

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