Land Disposal

Land disposal of abattoir solid wastes, either by land spreading or landfill, has been a common practise for many years, but concern over the transmission of exotic animal diseases has already seen a decline in this practise in Europe over the past several years. The EU Animal By-products Regulations [80] now prohibit land disposal of all animal wastes with the exception of manures and digestive tract contents, and these only when "the competent authority does not consider them to present a risk of spreading any serious transmissible disease." The only restriction on digestive tract contents is that spreading is limited to nonpasture land. In the EU operators will

Table 14 Analysis of Paunch Contents of Ruminant Animals and Mixed Gut Material

Type of animal Total solids (%) COD [lb/103 lb (g/kg)] BOD (mg/L) Reference Cattle 50,000 7

Table 14 Analysis of Paunch Contents of Ruminant Animals and Mixed Gut Material

Type of animal Total solids (%) COD [lb/103 lb (g/kg)] BOD (mg/L) Reference Cattle 50,000 7

14.2

134

88

12.7

134

88

14

8

Sheep

30,000

7

Lamb

9.3

165

88

Pig

26

7

Mixed kill

4.7-9.7

7

22

50,000

9

2.4-21

6000-41,000

5

also no longer be able to spread untreated blood from abattoirs onto land or dispose of it down wastewater drainage systems for treatment by water companies. The blood will need to be treated in an approved rendering, biogas, or composting plant before it can be land-spread. The regulations will vary from country to country, but it should be noted that land-spreading of any abattoir waste is liable to cause public nuisance through odor and environmental concerns, and has potential for disease transmission. It is therefore beneficial to treat the waste by a stabilization process before land application, and where this is not possible it is imperative that land application is undertaken with great care. The rate of application of the waste should be based on the level of plant nutrients present.

Where there are no country-specific regulations, as a general rule all abattoir wastes should be injected into the soil to reduce odor and avoid any potential pathogen transmission, and should not be surface-spread on pasture land or forage crops. If these materials are surface-spread on arable land, they should be incorporated immediately by plowing. Injection into grassland should be followed by a minimum interval of three weeks before the grass is used for grazing or conservation. Storage time for the materials should be kept to a minimum to avoid further development of odors [5].

The regulations currently in force in the United States for the land application of slaughterhouse-derived biosolids are given in the USEPA's Guide to Field Storage of Biosolids [89].

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