Diagrams Related To Industrial Policies

The bakery industry is one of the world's major food industries and varies widely in terms of production scale and process. Traditionally, bakery products may be categorized as bread and bread roll products, pastry products (e.g., pies and pasties), and specialty products (e.g., cake, biscuits, donuts, and specialty breads). In March 2003, there were more than 7000 bakery operations in the United States (Table 1) with more than 220,000 employees. More than 50% of bakery businesses are small, having fewer than 100 employees [1].

The bakery industry has had a relatively low growth rate. Annual industry sales were $14.7 billion, $16.6 billion, and $17.7 billion in 1998, 2000, and 2002, respectively; the average weekly unit sales were $9,890, $10,040, and $10,859 during the same periods. Industry sales increased 6.5%, only 1.6% ahead of the compounded rate of inflation, according to wvww.bakery-net.com. Production by large plant bakers contributes more than 80% of the market's supply, while master bakers sell less than 5% [1].

The principles of baking bread have been established for several thousand years. A typical bakery process is illustrated in Fig. 1. The major equipment includes miller, mixer/kneading machine, bun and bread former, fermentor, bake ovens, cold stage, and boilers [2-4]. The main processes are milling, mixing, fermentation, baking, and storage. Fermentation and baking are normally operated at 40°C and 160-260°C, respectively. Depending on logistics and the market, the products can be stored at 4-20°C.

Flour, yeast, salt, water, and oil/fat are the basic ingredients, while bread improver (flour treatment agents), usually vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and preservatives are included in the commercial bakery production process.

Flour made from wheat (e.g., hard wheats in the United States and Canada) contains a higher protein and gluten content. Yeast is used to introduce anaerobic fermentation, which produces carbon dioxide. Adding a small amount of salt gives the bread flavor, and can help the fermentation process produce bread with better volume as well as texture. A

very small quantity of vegetable oil keeps the products soft and makes the dough easier to pass through the

Table 1 Bakery Industry Market in the United States

Number of

Number of

Percentage of

Total

Total

Average

employees

businesses

businesses

employees

sales

employees/

businesses

Unknown

1,638

23.65

N/A

N/A

N/A

1

644

9.30

644

487

1

2-4

1,281

18.50

3,583

505.5

3

5-9

942

13.60

6,138

753

7

10-24

1,117

16.13

16,186

1,208.1

14

25-49

501

7.23

17,103

1,578.7

34

50-99

287

4.14

18,872

23,51.7

66

100-249

305

4.40

45,432

10,820.5

149

250-499

130

1.88

43,251

6,909.1

333

500-999

70

1.01

45,184

3,255

645

1,000-2,499

7

0.10

8,820

N/A

1,260

2,500-4,999

2

0.03

7,295

760.2

3,648

10,000-14,999

1

0.01

11,077

N/A

11,077

Total/Average

6,925

100.00

223,585

28,628.8

32

Note: data include bread, cake, and related products (US industry code 2051); cookies and crackers (US industry code 2052); frozen bakery products, except bread (US industry code 2053); sales are in $US. Source: Ref. 1.

Note: data include bread, cake, and related products (US industry code 2051); cookies and crackers (US industry code 2052); frozen bakery products, except bread (US industry code 2053); sales are in $US. Source: Ref. 1.

manufacturing processes. Another important component in production is water, which is used to produce the dough. Good bread should have a certain good percentage of water. Vitamin C, a bread improver, strengthens the dough and helps it rise. Preservatives such as acetic acid are used to ensure the freshness of products and prevent staling. The ratio of flour to water is normally 10:6; while others are of very small amounts [3-6].

During the manufacturing process, 40-50°C hot water mixed with detergents is used to wash the baking plates, molds, and trays. Baking is normally operated on a single eight-hour shift and the production is in the early morning hours.

Bakery Production
Figure 1 General production process diagram of bakery industry.

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