Hydroxide precipitation is the most common conventional treatment applied to metal finishing wastewaters to remove heavy metals, as well as many other particulate and soluble pollutants. The method is based on low solubility of metal hydroxides at alkaline pH values. As the metals are converted to the solid phase, they are separated from wastewater by physical means such as sedimentation, flotation, and filtration. Iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, beryllium, cobalt, mercury, manganese, and aluminum are among the metals that can be treated by hydroxide precipitation.
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