Heat treating aims to modify the physical properties of workpieces through the application of controlled heating and cooling cycles. Case-hardening produces a hard surface over a metal core. The surface is wear-resistant and durable. Quenching is realized using several types of solutions. Brine solutions contain sodium and calcium chloride and mineral acids. Water/oil emulsions contain soaps, alcohols, oils, emulsifiers, in addition to dissolved salts. Liquid carburizing and carbonitriding solutions contain sodium cyanide, detergents, and dissolved salts. Hightemperature quenching baths contain sodium cyanide, boron oxide, sodium fluoride, dissolved salts, as well as manganese dioxide and silicon carbide. Molten lead is used for heat treatment of steel.
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