Figure 16 Liquid detergent manufacture P from

Figure 17 Detergent manufacture by dry blending (Q) (from Ref. 13).
Figure 18 Drum-dried detergent manufacture (R) (from Ref. 13).
Figure 19 Detergent bar and cake manufacture (S) (from Ref. 13).

viewpoint of economics, that these substances not be lost, but some losses and spills appear unavoidable and some intentional dumping does take place during housecleaning and vessel emptying and preparation operations.

According to a study by the USEPA [12], which presents estimates of industrial wastewater generation as well as related pollution parameter concentrations, the wastewater volume discharged from soap and detergent manufacturing facilities per unit of production ranges from 0.3 to 2.8 gal/lb (2.5-23.4 L/kg) of product. The reported ranges of concentration (mg/L) for BOD, suspended solids, COD, and grease were 5001200, 400-2100, 400-1800, and about 300, respectively. These data were based on a study of the literature and the field experience of governmental and private organizations. The values represent plant operating experience for several plants consisting of 24 hour composite samples taken at frequent intervals. The ranges for flow and other parameters generally represent variations in the level of plant technology or variations in flow and quality parameters from different subprocesses. In particular, the more advanced and modern the level of production technology, the smaller the volume of wastewater discharged per unit of product. The large variability (up to one order of magnitude) in the ranges is generally due to the heterogeneity of products and processes in the soap and detergent industry.

The federal guidelines [13] for state and local pretreatment programs reported the raw wastewater characteristics (Table 1) in mg/L concentration and the flows and water quality parameters (Table 2) based on the production or 1 ton of product manufactured for the subcategories of the industry. Most soap and detergent manufacturing plants contain two or more of the subcategories shown in Table 3, and their wastewaters are a composite of these individual unit processes.

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