Figure 10 Proposed integrated palm oil production and POME wastewater treatment system from

PHA-producing microorganisms. The solid wastes (sludges) generated from the wastewater treatment system will be used as a mixture with EFB to form biocompost.

Wastes generated from the palm oil mill contain a high percentage of degradable organic material and can be converted into value-added products and chemicals. It is expected that changes in the technologies in POME treatment could lead to a substantial reduction in terms of waste discharged. On the other hand, the palm oil industry will experience a sustainable growth by addressing the excessive pollution issue through development of biowastes as alternative sources of renewable energy and valued chemicals. This in turn shall generate additional revenue for the industry. Finally, better-integrated waste management is associated with other environmental benefits such as reduction of surface waterbody and groundwater contamination, less waste of land and resources, lower air pollution, and a reduction of accelerating climate changes.

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