Example of Comprehensive Fermentation Factory

During the 1970s, a fermentation factory in Yamaguchi Prefecture produced alcohol, MSG, lysine, antibiotics, and organic combined fertilizer and used molasses to produce alcohol, MSG, and yeast. It is introduced as an example, although its present situation has changed.

Previously, the factory employed a combination of methane fermentation and biological aerobic treatment. With the advance of environmental criteria, the following countermeasures were conducted, in stages: (a) to make the substrate concentration higher, (b) reuse of wastewater to substrate solution, (c) conversion of raw material from molasses to acetic acid, and (d) improvement of extraction and purifying processes. For treatment processes, measures included, (a) classification of wastewater, and (b) possible resource recovery of valuable matters. Figure 8 shows the flow of wastewater treatment of this factory in 1976.

The values shown in Figure 8 are the flow rate, daily load of CODMn, TN, and TP. Table 14 summarizes the estimation process of the balance shown in Fig. 7. In fermentation

Table 13 Estimation of N and P Balance of Ribonucleotides Production Starting from RNA Yeast

Content Amount of N and P

Table 13 Estimation of N and P Balance of Ribonucleotides Production Starting from RNA Yeast

Content Amount of N and P

Amount (t/day)c N

(%) P

(%)

N (t/day) P (t/day)

Input

RNA yeast

37.0

8.1

2.4

3.00

0.88

Outputa

Nucleotides seasoningsb

2.8

11.8

5.8

0.33

0.16

Spent yeast cells

15.2

7.5

1.5

1.14

0.23

Liquid fertilizer

30.3

3.0

0.7

0.91

0.20

Sludge fertilizer

2.2

8.0

1.3

0.16

0.03

Wastewater

28,000

0.30

0.20

Total

2.84

0.81

aIgnoring the input of enzyme and the output of filter cake.

bTaking average of N, P contents for 5'-GMP 2Na 7H2O and 5'-IMP 2Na 7-8H2O.

cAssuming 27 days/month and 330 days/year.

aIgnoring the input of enzyme and the output of filter cake.

bTaking average of N, P contents for 5'-GMP 2Na 7H2O and 5'-IMP 2Na 7-8H2O.

cAssuming 27 days/month and 330 days/year.

Final 5oJ. lank

Discharge

Figure 8 Estimated flow of wastewater in a comprehensive fermentation factory.

factories, batch processes are generally adopted, so that it is difficult to estimate the reliable balance. As shown in Table 15, 76 tons of N were used; 74% of it was generated as wastewater and 25 tons were discharged to the coastal water. As for P, 2.01 tons were used, excluding organic fertilizer production, and 1.2 tons, corresponding to 77% of use, were generated and

Table 14 Estimation of N and P Balance in a Comprehensive Fermentation Factory

Content Amount of N and Pa

Input

Table 14 Estimation of N and P Balance in a Comprehensive Fermentation Factory

Molasses

282,000

0.43

0.07

3.67

0.598

Soy bean husk

3,000

3.57

0.67

0.32

0.061

Ammonia

28,800

82.25

0

71.78

0

Calcium perphosphate

6,000

0

7.42

0

1.349

Phosphate and others

5.68b

Subtotal

75.8

7.69

Output

Mono-sodium glutamate

15

8.28

0

5.12

0

Amino acids

4,800

15

0

2.18

0c

Seasonings

7,080

7

1

1.5

0.215

Organic fertilizer

85,898

9.11

2.6

23.71

6.768

Recycled cells 195 7 1 0.51 0.072

Ocean dumping 3.4 0.07

Removal 12.3 0.22

Discharge 84,000 24.7 0.25

Subtotal 74.1 7.69

aAssuming 330 working days/year; bestimated from the balance; clysine, leucine, valine.

Table 15 N and P Balance in a Fermentation Factory

Use, a

Generated

Loss

Discharged Reduction

Recovery,

Recovery

(t/day)

load, b

rate,

load, c (t/day) rate, 1-c/b

d (t/day)

rate, d/b

(t/day)

b/a (%)

(%)

(%)

CODMn

-

150

-

7.4

95

106

71

TN

76

56

74

25

55

16

29

TP

7.7

1.2

16

0.3

79

0.7

57

2.01a

60

aExcluding the input to fertilizer production.

aExcluding the input to fertilizer production.

0.25 tons were discharged to the coastal water. The CODMn generated was 150 t/day and discharged 7.4 t/day. The production of organic fertilizer had been increasing year by year at that time, and 71, 29, and 57% of CODMn, TN, and TP, respectively, were recovered as organic fertilizer out of generation load.

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