Conclusion

This chapter discussed the structural point of view and the characterization of food processing relating to liquid, solid, and hazardous wastes. Focusing on case studies mainly in Japan the details of food waste generation and treatment have been presented, sometimes in comparison with cases in the United States. We can summarize the conclusions and recommendations on several points as follows.

As a main principle, the self-supply of food should be a goal for all countries. The local unbalance between food production and consumption makes food wastes hazardous and induces eutrophication of water bodies, nitrate pollution of groundwater, and ruins farmland soil because of limited recycling of minerals. Therefore, the free trade of primary products should be reexamined in light of environmental issues.

Table 23 Sludge Recycling Centers Using Anaerobic Treatment in Japan

Prefecture

Region

Construction

Amount of

Garbage,

Energy Technology

period

wastes night soil etc. (t/day)

use

and sludge

(kL/day)

Nara

Jouetsu

1999

240

8.0

a

Thermophilic

Nagano

Shimoina

1999

16

8.0

a

Thermophilic

Niigata

Higashi Kanbara

1999

22.3

3.5

b

Mesophilic

Nara

Ikoma

2000

80

1.3

a

Thermophilic

Miyazaki

Kusima

2000

35

0.9

b

Mesophilic

Nara

Nara

2001

90

3.0

b

Mesophilic

Hokkaido

Minami Souya

2002

15

16.0

a

Thermophilic

Hokkaido

Nisi Tenpoku

2002

20

8.0

b

Thermophilic

Miyagi

Mutsunokuni

2002

105

1.0

b

Thermophilic

Nagasaki

Kamigotou

2002

69

3.0

b

Thermophilic

a: power generation with cogeneration; b: heat use only. Source: Ref. 49.

a: power generation with cogeneration; b: heat use only. Source: Ref. 49.

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