Hazardous wastes can be treated in all the systems mentioned above, but long durations are usually needed to reach permitted levels of pollution. The choice of the system depends on the required time and possible cost of the treatment. Time of the treatment decreases, but the costs increase in the following sequence: windrow systems-static pile system^in-vessel system. To intensify the composting of hazardous solid waste, the following pretreatments can be used: mechanical disintegration and separation or screening to improve bioavailability of hazardous substances, thermal treatment, washing out of hazardous substances from waste by water or surfactants to diminish their content in waste, or application of H2O2, ozone, or Fenton's reagent as a chemical pretreatment to oxidize and cleave aromatic rings of hydrocarbons. There are many reports of successful applications of all types of composting for the treatment of crude-oil-impacted soil, petrochemicals-polluted soil, and explosives-polluted soil.
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