Usually, the hazardous substance can be removed or treated by physical, chemical, physicochemical, or biological methods. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are shown in Table 2. The advantages of biotechnological treatment of hazardous wastes are biodegradation or detoxication of a wide spectrum of hazardous substances by natural microorganisms and availability of a wide range of biotechnological methods for complete destruction of hazardous wastes without production of secondary hazardous wastes. However, to intensify the biotreatment, nutrients and electron acceptors must be added, and optimal conditions must be maintained. On the other hand, there may be unexpected or negative effects mediated by microorganisms, such as emission of odors or toxic gases during the biotreatment, and it may be difficult to manage the biotreatment system because of the complexity and high sensitivity of the biological processes.
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