Chemical Recovery Cartridge Metallic Replacement method

In this method, a metal (usually iron) in a chemical recovery cartridge (CRC) reacts with the silver thiosulfate in the spent fixer and goes into solution. The less active metal (silver) settles out as a solid. To bring the silver into contact with the iron, the spent fixer is passed through the CRC container, which is filled with steel wool. The steel wool provides the source of iron to replace the silver. The main advantages of this CRC method are the very low initial cost (cartridges cost about US$60) and the simplicity of installation; only a few simple plumbing connections (shown in Fig. 2) are required.

The main disadvantages, compared to the electrolytic method, are that the silver is recovered as a sludge, making it more difficult to determine the exact amount recovered. The recovered sludge containing silver requires more refining processes than the plate silver obtained

Figure 2 Chemical recovery cartridges (CRCs). (Courtesy of Eastman Kodak Co., NY.)

from electrolytic methods, if silver recovery and silver refining are both intended. Also, CRCs cannot be reused. They must be replaced when they are exhausted.

In summation, the silver chemical recovery cartridge method (Fig. 2) can achieve silver recovery efficiencies of greater than 90%. However, it is difficult to achieve this level of recovery consistently, making it an unreliable choice if the operator needs to meet low silver discharge limits. Another problem with the chemical recovery cartridge method is that as silver is recovered, the steel wool becomes soluble, producing iron levels in the effluent as high as 3000 mg/L. Iron is regulated to levels well below those concentrations by many sewer codes.

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