Biotechnological Processes

Biotechnological processes mainly include aerobic (composting), anaerobic (mixed fermentation), solid fermentation, and fungal treatments. A detailed description of methodologies, results, and case studies related to these processes was discussed in Section 17.5.

Other points of considerable importance can be added in this respect [1]:

• Because olive oil mills are operated over limited periods, that is, about three months only per year, an ideal treatment method would be one that could be shifted for treating other types of waste after the end of the olive oil production season.

• The composting method for solid waste treatment is preferable to other methods. This process takes place without serious emissions into air, water, or soil and therefore conforms to the key objectives of Mediterranean environmental policy. Since operational and personnel costs are rather low, this process might also be accepted by plant operators.

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Organic Gardeners Composting

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