Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are...

Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid

Process Flow Diagram For Ms4 Stormwater

One method used in order to defluorinate wet process phosphoric acid is vacuum evaporation. The concentration of 54 P2O5 acid to a 68-72 P2O5 strength is performed in vessels that use high-pressure (30.6-37.4 atm or 450-550 psig) steam or an externally heated Dowtherm solution as the heat energy source for evaporation of water from the acid. Fluorine removal from the acid occurs concurrently with the water vapor loss. A typical process flow diagram for vacuum-type evaporation is shown in Figure...

Figure 8 Diagrammatic representation of anaerobic filter process from

Anaerobic Filter

Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Figure 9 Diagrammatic representation of fluidized and expanded bed reactor process from Ref. 77 . Anaerobic Technologies Suppliers and Anaerobic Plants in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Table 13 shows the major suppliers of full-scale anaerobic treatment plants for industrial wastewater and the corresponding technologies. It may be noted from this table that a significant number of installations for...

Combined Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes

Most soap and detergent manufacturing facilities, as mentioned previously, discharge their untreated or pretreated wastes into municipal systems. The compositions of these wastewaters vary widely, with some being readily biodegradable and others inhibitory to normal biological treatment processes. In order to allow and surcharge such an effluent to a municipal treatment plant, an evaluation of its treatability is required. Such a detailed assessment of the wastewaters discharged from a factory...

Chevron refinery as cooling tower makeup From

Zero Liquid Discharge Figure Diagram

The El Segundo, CA, Chevron refinery takes a further step in water reuse 76 . It receives 16,300 m3 day of reclaimed water to feed its boilers. Microfiltration (MF) and RO are used to treat secondary effluent from the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant to provide low-pressure boiler feedwater while a second pass RO is used to produce high-pressure boiler feedwater. The concept of water reuse and zero liquid discharge in petroleum refineries has been proposed and debated for many years 77 . The...

Phosphate Fertilizer A

H2so4 Rady Flow Chart

The phosphate fertilizer industry is defined as eight separate processes phosphate rock grinding, wet process phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid concentration, phosphoric acid clarification, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and sulfuric acid. Practically all phosphate manufacturers combine the various effluents into a large recycle water system. It is only when the quantity of recycle water increases beyond the capacity to contain it that effluent treatment is...

Rotating Biological Contactors RBC

Rotating Biological Contactor Diagram

Increasingly stringent requirements for the removal of organic and inorganic substances from wastewater have necessitated the development of innovative, cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives in recent years. The aerobic rotating biological contactor (RBC) is one of the biological processes for the treatment of organic wastewater. It is another type of attached growth process that combines advantages of biological fixed-film (short hydraulic retention time, high biomass concentration,...