Industrial Wastes

Flakes and Powders F

Reclaimed Flakes Process

Neat soap may or may not be blended with other products before flaking or powdering. Neat soap is sometimes filtered to remove gel particles and run into a reactor (crutcher) for mixing with builders. After thorough mixing, the finished formulation is run through various mechanical operations to produce flakes and powders. Because all of the evaporated moisture goes to the atmosphere, there is no wastewater effluent. Figure 4 Soap from fatty acid neutralization (C) (from Ref. 13). Figure 4 Soap...

Environmental Feasibility Analysis

The environmental feasibility analysis weighs the advantages and disadvantages of each option with regard to the environment. Most housekeeping and direct efficiency improvements have obvious advantages. Some options require a thorough environmental evaluation, especially if they involve product or process changes or the substitution of raw materials. The environmental option of pollution prevention is rated relative to the technical and economical options with respect to the criteria that are...

Ion Exchange Wastes

Ion exchange processes can be designed to remove all mineral salts in a one-unit operation and, as such, is the most common means of treating supply water. The process uses an organic resin that must be regenerated periodically by backwashing and releasing the solids. A regenerant solution is passed over the bed and it is subsequently washed. The resulting exchange wastes are generally acidic or alkaline with the exception of sodium chloride solutions, which are neutral. While these wastes do...

Filtration Straining

Filtration Straining

Various types of filtration straining equipment are available. Some of these include gravity filters, pressure filters, microstrainers, drum screens, and disc screens. Filtration generally uses a filter media or fine fabric to separate solids from contaminated water. Straining generally utilizes Figure 10 Rectangular and circular sedimentation basins (from Ref. 42). Figure 10 Rectangular and circular sedimentation basins (from Ref. 42). a wire mesh or coarse fabric to provide a lesser degree of...

Powdered Activated Carbon Activated Sludge Process

Various researchers 47,48 have investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance of the activated sludge process for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. Various treatment units such as the activated sludge process (ASP), PAC-ASP, granular activated carbon (GAC), and a resin column were studied and compared in removing priority pollutants from a pharmaceutical plant's wastewater 47 . The wastewater generated from the plant contained 0-nitroaniline (0-NA),...

Case Studies

Wao Wastewater Treatment

A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the integrated wet air oxidation-aerobic biodegradation process (Fig. 14) in treating olive-processing wastewater in the province of Badajoz, Spain 19 . The most representative parameters are the COD and BOD5, with values of 24.45 and 14.8 g O2 L respectively, and phenolic content 833 mg phenol L. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion in the range 3060 (6 hours of treatment) was achieved by WAO using relatively mild conditions...

Aerated Lagoons Stabilization Basins

Aerated Lagoons

Aerated lagoons are simple, low-cost biological treatment systems that have been explored in laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale studies for the treatment of pulp and paper industrial effluents. Distinct advantages of stabilization basins are lower energy requirement for operation and production of lower quantities of prestabilized sludge. In developed countries like Canada and the United States, the earliest secondary treatment plants for the treatment of pulp and paper effluents...

Treatment of Complexed Metals

Edta Binds Ferrous

Complexed metals form a group of wastewater pollutants that contain complexing agents. Complexing agents prevent the metals from being precipitated. In fact, almost all groups of wastewaters from metal finishing operations contain inorganic and organic complex formers that may interact or interfere with many of the treatment methods. In some cases, metals can be effectively removed independently of how strong the metal binding is, as in the case of sulfide precipitation. Therefore, complexed...

Treatment of Sludge

Many residues and sludges originate from the treatment operation. Some residues are related to in-plant control and recovery applications. Among them are filter cartridges, cloth filters, spent adsorbates such as activated carbon or xanthates, membrane filter concentrates, regenerate solutions, unrecoverable electrolytic treatment residues, distillation and evaporation residues, filter sludges, oily wastes, and sludges separated from the baths 2 . These wastes and their collection, control, and...

Colgate Palmolive Plant

Possibly the most representative treatment facility that handles wastewaters from the production of soaps, detergents, glycerines, and personal care products is Colgate-Palmolive Company's plant at Jeffersonville, IN 3 . The production wastes had received treatment since 1968 21 in a completely mixed activated sludge plant with a 0.6 MGD design flow and consisting of a 0.5 MG mixed equalization and storage basin, aeration basin, and final clarifier. The treated effluent was discharged to the...

Emerging Phosphorus Removal Technologies

More recent research on treatment or recovery of phosphates and phosphorus from wastewater can be found from the literature 57,58,60-69,73 . The use of combined biological and physicochemical treatment processes for phosphorus removal was originally conceived by Beer and Wang at Coxsackie Sewage Treatment Plant, NY 58 , and by Krofta and Wang at the Lenox Institute of Water Technology, MA 65,66 . They successfully used ferric chloride, lime, and alum for precipitation of phosphate from the...

Chemical Coagulation and Precipitation

This method relies on the addition of metal salts to cause agglomeration of small particles into larger flocs that can be easily removed by settling. The effectiveness of this process is dependent upon the nature of coagulating agent, coagulant dosage, pH, ionic strength, and the nature and concentration of compounds present in wastewaters. The not-so-easily biodegradable fraction of pulping and bleaching effluents consists of polar and hydrophobic compounds, notably resin acids, long-chain...

Anaerobic Filters

Wastewater Treatment Plant

The anaerobic filter was developed by Yong and McCarty in the late 1960s. It is typically operated like a fixed-bed reactor 10 , where growth-supporting media in the anaerobic filter contacts wastewater. Anaerobic microorganisms grow on the supporting media surfaces and void spaces in the media particles. There are two variations of the anaerobic filters upflow and downflow modes. The media entraps SS present in wastewater coming from either the top (downflow filter) or the bottom (upflow...

Sour Water Stripping

Sour Water Treatment

Many processes in a refinery use steam as a stripping medium in distillation and as a diluent to reduce the hydrocarbon partial pressure in catalytic or thermal cracking 37 . The steam is eventually condensed as a liquid effluent commonly referred to as sour or foul water. The two most prevalent pollutants found in sour water are H2S and NH3 resulting from the destruction of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds during desulfurization, denitrification, and hydrotreating. Phenols and cyanides...

Fats Oil and Grease Removal

The presence of fats, oil, and grease (FOG) in dairy processing wastewater can cause all kinds of problems in biological wastewater treatment systems onsite and in public sewage treatment facilities. It is therefore essential to reduce, if not remove FOG completely, prior to further treatment. According to the IDF 32 , factories processing whole milk, such as milk separation plants as well as cheese and butter plants, whey separation factories, and milk bottling plants, experience the most...

Good Housekeeping

Good housekeeping can play an important role in reducing unnecessary flows that must be treated downstream. Good housekeeping practises include minimizing waste when sampling product lines shutting off washdown hoses when not in use having a good maintenance program to keep the refinery as leakproof as possible and individually treating waste streams with special characteristics, such as spent cleaning solutions 35 . Many more things can be done here are just a few. The use of dry cleaning,...

Hexavalent Chromium Wastewater Treatment

Conventional treatment of hexavalent chromium wastewaters involves the reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium and subsequent precipitation of trivalent chromium as hydroxide. Hexavalent chromium reduction is commonly accomplished using chemical reduction. Hexavalent chromium is reduced to trivalent chromium at acid pH using chemical reduction agents. Sodium bisulfide, sodium metabisulfide, and ferrous sulfate are among the common reduction agents used for small plants. In larger...

Table 8 Comparison of the Results achieved in Two Systems

Chemical Oxygen Demand Procedure Chart

Biology+ozonation Biology+ozonation + Raw water flow rate (m3 hour) Influent COD (mg L) Effluent biology I COD (mg L) Effluent ozonation COD (mg L) Effluent biology II COD (mg L) Total COD removal (mg L) COD removal biology I+II (mg L) COD removal ozonation (mg L) Ozone mass requirement (COD removal with ozonationx2.5) (g hour) Factor (ozone mass COD removed within ozonation+biology) (kg O3 kg CODrem0ved) Figure 14 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal within biological and ozone steps of the...

Aerobic Treatment

When biodegradable organic pollutants in olive oil mill wastewater (alpechin) are eliminated by oxygen-consuming microorganisms in water to produce energy, the oxygen concentration decreases and the natural balance in the water body is disturbed. To counteract an overloading of the oxygen balance, the largest part of these oxygen-consuming substances (defined as BOD5) must be removed before being discharged into the water body. Wastewater treatment processes have therefore been developed with...

Heavy Metals

Materials classed as heavy metals are commonly regulated by local sewer authorities. They are usually defined as those metals with a specific gravity greater than 5.0. This includes metals such as antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, and zinc. The concentration of some heavy metals in an effluent may be regulated because of the toxicity of these metals or their compounds. The toxicity can vary with the particular...

Silver Recovery 641 Introduction

As previously discussed, silver from photoprocessing operations is much less toxic than free silver ion. Silver is generally removed from photographic products during processing in the form of silver thiosulfate complex, Ag(S2O3)23-. This complex has a dissociation constant of 5x10-14 thus, it is virtually impossible for free silver ion (Ag+) to be present at any significant concentration levels in photoprocessing effluents 10 . In black and white products, because the final image is metallic...

Metallic Replacement

Metallic replacement has been an important means of recovering silver from fixers, bleach-fixes, and washwaters for many years. It can be used as a primary method of recovery or a secondary method following the electrolytic treatment of fixers or bleach-fixes. Metallic replacement involves passing a silver-bearing solution through a vessel containing a more active metal in elemental form, usually iron. The reaction of dissolved silver with metallic iron is If conditions were ideal and no other...

Electrolytic Silver Recovery

Electrolysis, or more specifically electrowinning, is the most widely used and universally applicable method for silver recovery in the photoprocessing industry. An electrolytic silverrecovery cell consists of a cathode and an anode. Oxidation occurs at the anode (positive electrode) and reduction at the cathode (negative electrode). Silver deposits on the cathode during electrolysis when a direct current is passed through the silver-bearing photoprocessing solution. After sufficient silver has...

Alternative Offsite Disposal and Waste Concentration Options

Some situations occur in which it is not possible to discharge processing solution overflows to a sewer. This may be due to stringent sewer codes that cannot be met or because no sewer system is available. Under these circumstances, it may be necessary to have the solutions hauled offsite by a waste disposal company. Such services will then treat the solutions at a centralized waste treatment facility. It is important that the company chosen be reputable and comply with all pertinent...

Electrolytic Silver Recovery Method

Electrolytic Method Silver Recovery

In this method, the silver-bearing solution is passed between two electrodes through which a controlled direct electric current flows as shown in Figure 3. Silver plates out on the cathodes as almost pure metal. The advantages of the electrolytic method is that silver is recovered in an almost pure form, making it easier to handle and less costly to refine. With careful monitoring, it also permits fixer reuse for some processes. It also avoids the need to store and replace cartridges, as with...

Cyanide Wastewater Treatment Chlorine Oxidation

Oxidation of cyanide by chlorine is the most commonly used and effective method. The method can be operated in batch or continuous modes of operation. It is suited to automation and works at ambient conditions. It is a well-proven method generating a vast experience of operation 3 . Cyanide oxidation by chlorine is a two-step process. In the first step, cyanide is converted to cyanate in the second step, cyanate is hydrolyzed to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas 93 . In the first step, chlorine...

Table 23 Schedule VI of Environment Protection Third Amendment Rules 1993 [69

Water__sewers irrigation Marine coastal areas 7 Total residual chlorine (mg L), max 8 Ammonical nitrogen as (N) (mg L), max Should not exceed 5 C above the receiving water temperature 10 200 (a) For process waste water, 100 (b) For cooling water effluent 10 above total suspended matter of influent solids max. 3 mm (b) Settleable solids, max. Should not exceed 5 C above the receiving water temperature aThese standards shall be applicable for industries, operations, or processes other than those...

Cl3 KjO J Jog H Ct

Breakpoint Chlorination Graph

A problem that may occur during chlorination of fisheries effluents is the formation of chloramines. These wastewaters may contain appreciable amounts of ammonia and volatile amines, which react with chlorine to give chloramines, resulting in an increased demand for chlorine to achieve a desired degree of disinfection. The proportions of these products depend on the pH and concentration of ammonia and the organic amines present. Chlorination also runs the risk of developing trihalomethanes,...

Table 2A Summary of Priority Pollutants in the Steam Electric Industry Recirculating Cooling Water

Pollutant Number of Number of Range of Median of Mean of __samples detections detections detections detections Pollutant Number of Number of Range of Median of Mean of __samples detections detections detections detections Table 2B Summary of Priority Pollutants in the Steam Electric Industry Recirculating Cooling Water-Discharge Information Table 2B Summary of Priority Pollutants in the Steam Electric Industry Recirculating Cooling Water-Discharge Information Thallium Mercury Toxic organics...

Table 8 Plant Specific Treatment Data for Plant 1245 Once Through Cooling Water

TDS 35,000 33,000 TSS 6 14 TOC 14 25 Phenolics < 5 < 5 TRCb < 10 120 _Flow (L s)__4,380_4,380 aPercent removal is not meaningful due to the fact that the water does not undergo any treatment. bTotal residual chlorine. Source USEPA. Table 9 Plant-Specific Treatment Data for Plant 3920 Fly Ash Pond Water Pollutant Influent Effluent Percent removal Classical pollutant (mg L) Table 9 Plant-Specific Treatment Data for Plant 3920 Fly Ash Pond Water Pollutant Influent Effluent Percent removal...

Application of Biotechnology for Industrial Waste Treatment

Joo-Hwa Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay, and Volodymyr Ivanov Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 12.1 BIOTREATABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL HAZARDOUS Environmental biotechnology concerns the science and practical knowledge relating to the use of microorganisms and their products. Biotechnology combines fundamental knowledge in microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, and engineering knowledge of the specific processes and...

Metallo Organic Pesticides

Manufacturing Process Pesticides

Metallo-organic active ingredients mean organic active ingredients containing one or more metallic atoms, such as arsenic, mercury, copper, and cadmium, in the structure. Figure 4 shows a general process flow diagram for arsenic-type metallo-organic pesticide production 8 . Monosodium acid methanearsenate (MSMA) is the most widely produced organoarsenic herbicide in this group. The first step of the process is performed in a separate, dedicated building. The drums of arsenic trioxide are opened...

Slurry Bioreactor System For Soil Decontamination

Slurry Bioreactor

The first ex situ bioremediation process to be introduced here is the Eimco Biolift Slurry Reactor, developed by Eimco Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. The process (Fig. 8) has successfully removed toxic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil. Traditional biological treatments, such as landfarming and in situ bioremediation, may not reduce PAHs in soil to target levels in a timely manner. Slurry reactors are more efficient for bioremediation and more...

Biological Secondary Treatment

Secondary Treatment Systems

Using biological treatment, more than 90 efficiency can be achieved in pollutant removal from slaughterhouse wastes. Commonly used systems include lagoons (aerobic and anaerobic), conventional activated sludge, extended aeration, oxidation ditches, sequencing batch reactors, and anaerobic digestion. A series of anaerobic biological processes followed by aerobic biological processes is often useful for sequential reduction of the BOD load in the most economic manner, although either process can...

Activated Sludge Process

Sludge Treatment Diagram

In the activated sludge process, suspended growth microorganisms are employed. A typical activated sludge process consists of a pretreatment process (mainly screening and clarification), aeration tank (bioreactor), final sedimentation, and excess sludge treatment (anaerobic treatment and dewatering process). The final sedimentation separates microorganisms from the water solution. In order to enhance the performance result, most of the sludge from the sedimentation is recycled back to the...

Wastewater Characteristics and Sources

Wastewaters from the manufacturing, processing, and formulation of inorganic chemicals such as phosphorus compounds, phosphates, and phosphate fertilizers cannot be exactly characterized. The wastewater streams are usually expected to contain trace or large concentrations of all raw materials used in the plant all intermediate compounds produced during manufacture all final products, coproducts, and byproducts and the auxiliary or processing chemicals employed. It is desirable from the...

Table 6 Processing of Cotton Process Steps and Selected Parameters

Process step Critical parameter Desizing COD + BOD Scouring COD + BOD Starch, modified starch, PVA, polyacrylates Organic load released from cotton and added auxiliaries Table 7 COD and BOD per Mass of Size Released Table 7 COD and BOD per Mass of Size Released Desizing of m 1000 kg of goods, which contain 5 of weight starch size (p 0.05) cause a load zcod 50 kg and zBOD 30 kg. Using 10 L of water for desizing of 1 kg of fabric, a total volume of 10,000 L will be required and the load Z,COD 50...

Figure 10 Sources for colored wastes from textile dyeing operations from

Niaid Organization Chart Nih

On the basis of Eqs (5) and (6), the part of dyestuff released as hydrolyzed dye can be estimated using Eq. (7). When a color depth of 5 (50 g dyestuff per 1 kg of goods) is used as basis for a calculation and a dyestuff fixation of 80 is observed at a liquor ratio of 1 10 (10 L of dyebath for 1 kg of goods) then a mass of 40 g dyestuff is fixed on the textile while 10 g remain in the dyebath as hydrolyzed dye. The dyestuff concentration cD in the used bath is then 1 g L ( 0.05, LR 10, cD 1 g...

Combined Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes

Most soap and detergent manufacturing facilities, as mentioned previously, discharge their untreated or pretreated wastes into municipal systems. The compositions of these wastewaters vary widely, with some being readily biodegradable and others inhibitory to normal biological treatment processes. In order to allow and surcharge such an effluent to a municipal treatment plant, an evaluation of its treatability is required. Such a detailed assessment of the wastewaters discharged from a factory...

Ex Situ And In Situ Vitrification

Vitrification Situ

Vitrification is a process of melting contaminated soil, buried hazardous wastes, or toxic sludges at a temperature as high as 1600-2000 C, in an electric furnace or in place at a contaminated site, to render the materials nonhazardous. The final nonhazardous product is a glassy and or crystalline solid matrix that is resistant to leaching and more durable than natural granite or marble. If the vitrification process is carried out in an electric furnace, it is called ex situ vitrification...

In Situ Subsurface Volatilization And Ventilation Combined Saturated Zone Sparging And In Situ Vadose Zone Vapor

Situ Air Sparging

The contaminated soil and groundwater in the saturated zone can be remediated for VOCs removal through sparging. The technology involves the use of combined saturated zone sparging and in situ vadose zone vapor stripping 34 . It is also called subsurface volatilization and ventilation 22-25 , in situ sparging, in situ air stripping, in situ aeration, and aeration curtain. There are two broad approaches to the process, which involves sparging volatile organics compounds (VOCs) from the saturated...

Application of Precipitation and Separation

A summary of the technologies applied for precipitation is given below. Some of the technologies are also commonly used for the treatment of other wastewater groups. Application of hydroxide precipitation is made using a conventional flash-mix, flocculation, and sedimentation scheme. Chemicals are then added to the flash-mixing basins. The detention time of the flash-mixing basins may vary from one minute to 15 minutes, depending on the solubility and reaction time of the chemicals, the time...

Treatment on Site

Human Direct Index New Caledonia

Before discharge to a nearby water recourse, OMW could be subjected to either of the two hereafter proposed complete treatment systems. Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment. The combined model anaerobic-aerobic treatment (Fig. 10) may be considered quite practical, both environmentally and economically. This method can be applied without serious emissions into air, water, and soil, keeping to the key objectives of environmental policy adopted worldwide. Anaerobic processes are especially suited for the...

Anaerobic Lagoon

The anaerobic lagoon is most commonly used to treat livestock waste. A livestock lagoon contains manure diluted with building washwater, rainfall, water wastage, and surface runoff. In the earthen and pondlike lagoon, the waste becomes partially liquefied and stabilized by the biological reactions. Anaerobic bacteria can decompose more complex organic matters per unit lagoon volume than aerobic bacteria. The process is predominantly used for treatment of concentrated wastes. Because the...

Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment

Second Edition, Revised and Expanded edited by Lawrence K.Wang Zorex Corporation, Newtonville, New York, New York, and Lenox Institute ofTechnology, Lenox, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Yung-Tse Hung Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Howard H.Lo Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Constantine Yapijakis The Cooper Union, New York, New York, U.S.A. Kathleen Hung Li NEC Business Network Solutions, Irving, Texas, U.S.A. The first edition of this book was published as...

The 130000 bpd Refinery Example

Take the example of a 130,000 bpd West Coast refinery that generates approximately 50,000 tons per year of hazardous waste 19 . Since 1984, this refinery has initiated waste management practices to handle Spent caustic. At the end of 1990, 100 of the spent caustic was recycled onsite or offsite. The alkylation dimersol and fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) spent caustic is recycled to neutralize acidic wastewater. The virgin light-ends spent caustic is transported offsite for reuse at a...

Table 14 Alternative Rinsing Practices [4

Reduction in dragout of process chemicals Speed of workpiece withdrawal Surface tension of the plating solution and physical shape and surface area of the workpiece rinsing efficiency and controlling water flow. Improvement of rinsing efficiency can be achieved by modifying the contact time and or agitation of the rinse tank with air or water. Water flow can be controlled using alternative methods of rinsing as described in Section 5.2. In addition, warm rinsing in the case of alkaline...

InPlant Control and Recycle

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible, particularly in the soap manufacturing subcategories where maximum flows may be 100 times the minimum. Considerably less in-plant water conservation and recycle are possible in the detergent industry, where flows per unit of product are smaller. The largest in-plant modification that can be made is the changing or replacement of the barometric condensers (subcategories A, B, D, and E). The wastewater quantity...

Introduction

The dairy industry is generally considered to be the largest source of food processing wastewater in many countries. As awareness of the importance of improved standards of wastewater treatment grows, process requirements have become increasingly stringent. Although the dairy industry is not commonly associated with severe environmental problems, it must continually consider its environmental impact particularly as dairy pollutants are mainly of organic origin. For dairy companies with good...

Bakery Industry Waste Sources

The bakery industry is one of the largest water users in Europe and the United States. The daily water consumption in the bakery industry ranges from 10,000 to 300,000 gal day. More than half of the water is discharged as wastewater. Facing increasing stringent wastewater discharge regulations and cost of pretreatment, more bakery manufacturers have turned to water conservation, clean technology, and pollution prevention in their production processes. As shown in Figure 1, almost every...

Digestion Systems

Reaction Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion facilities have been used for the management of animal slurries for many years, they can treat most easily biodegradable waste products, including everything of organic or vegetable origin. Recent developments in anaerobic digestion technology have allowed the expansion of feedstocks to include municipal solid wastes, biosolids, and organic industrial waste (e.g., seafood-processing wastes). Lawn and garden, or green residues, may also be included, but care should be taken...

Table 11 Lube Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Industrial Solid Wastes

_Probability of occurrence, percent less than or equal to_ BOD5 62.92 (22) 217.36 (76) 757.9 (265) COD 165.88 (58) 543.4 (190) 2288 (800) Values represent kg 1000 m3 (lb 1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3 1000 m3 feedstock throughput (gallons bbl.). BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TOC, total organic carbon TSS, total suspended solids O& G, oil and grease. Source From Ref. 7. Values represent kg 1000 m3 (lb 1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3 1000...

Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Processes

Despite the initial apprehension over the possible extent of impacts of surfactants on the physicochemical or biological treatment processes of municipal and industrial wastewaters, it soon became evident that no major interference occurred. As mentioned previously, the greatest problem proved to be the layers of foam that not only hindered normal sewage plant operation, but when wind-blown into urban areas, also aided the probable transmission of fecal pathogens present in sewage. The first...

Anaerobic Treatment Processes

Industrial Policy Climate

Anaerobic processes have been employed to stabilize sewage sludge for more than a century. The application of this process for high-strength industrial wastewater treatment began with the development of high rate anaerobic reactors 83,84 . A spectrum of innovative reactors ranging from suspended to attached growth systems or a combination of both (hybrid) operate currently with a range of HRT and SRT values. Retention of biomass is accomplished through the sedimentation of microbial flocs or...

Trickling Filters

The trickling filter is one of the most common attached cell (biofilm) processes. Unlike the activated sludge and aerated lagoons processes, which have biomass in suspension, most of the biomass in trickling filters are attached to certain support media over which they grow (Fig. 11). Typical microorganisms present in trickling filters are Zoogloea, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces, Nocardia, fungi, and protozoa. The crux of the process is that the organic contents of the...

Biological Filters

Clogged Sewer Clean Out

Biological filters can also be used for treating meat industry wastes. In this process the aerobic microorganisms grow as a slime or film that is supported on the surface of the filter medium. The wastewater is applied to the surface and trickles down while air percolates upwards through the medium and supplies the oxygen required for purification (Fig. 6). The treated water along with Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment system. Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment...

Bioremediation

Many terminologies are being used in the field of environmental biotechnology. They are briefly defined as follows for the purpose of clarification and comparison Biological treatment. Any kind of water treatment, waste treatment, or even air treatment involving mainly the use of living organisms, especially microorganisms for breaking down organic substances in the influent under aerobic, anaerobic, or anoxic conditions. The influent can be wastewater, sludge, solid waste, hazardous waste,...

Glossary [222557606669

A process whereby a solute (such as a liquid organic pollutant) accumulates or concentrates on the surface of a solid, such as granular activated carbon, polymeric adsorbent, activated alumina, etc. Aerobic. Involving conditions in which oxygen is available. Air biofilter(vapor phase bioreactor). Terms used to describe a biological filter (with microorganisms attached to the filter media) used for purification of air streams that aims to remove toxic organics or odors. Air...

Trickling Filter Process

Trickling Filter Diagram

Aerobic attached-growth processes include tricking filters (biotower) and rotating biological contactors (RBC). In these processes, microorganisms are attached onto solid media and form a layer of biofilm. The organic pollutants are first adsorbed to the biofilm surface, oxidation reactions then occur, which break the complex organics into a group of simple compounds, such as water, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. In addition, the energy released from the oxidation together with the organics in...

Anaerobic Digester

Like an anaerobic lagoon, the anaerobic digester is used to break down complex organic materials by a microbial population in the absence of DO. Anaerobic digesters can be designed and managed to optimize the bacterial decomposition of organic matter under more controlled conditions than those of anaerobic lagoons. Completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and plugflow (PF) reactors are commercially available. Covers floated on the surface of the manure are used to collect methane as well as to...

Mining and Phosphate Rock Processing

Mechanized open-cut mining is used to first strip off the overburden and then to excavate in strips the exposed phosphate rock bed matrix. In the Rusaifa area of Jordan, the stripping ratio of overburden to phosphate rock is about 7 1 by wt. 28 . Following crushing and screening of the mined rocks in which the dust (less than 200 mesh) is rejected, they go through beneficiation processing. The unit processes involved in this wet treatment of the crushed rocks for the purpose of removing the mud...

Phosphorus Production

Phosphorus is manufactured by the reduction of commercial-quality phosphate rock by coke in an electric furnace, with silica used as a flux. Slag, ferrophosphorus (from iron contained in the phosphate rock), and carbon monoxide are reaction byproducts. The standard process, as shown in Figure 2, consists of three basic parts phosphate rock preparation, smelting in an electric furnace, and recovery of the resulting phosphorus. Phosphate rock ores are first blended so that the furnace feed is of...

Phosphorus Consuming

This subcategory involves phosphoric acid (dry process), phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride, and phosphorus oxychloride. In the standard dry process for phosphoric acid production, liquid phosphorus is burned in the air, the resulting gaseous phosphorus pentaoxide is absorbed and hydrated in a water spray, and the mist is collected with an electrostatic precipitator. Regardless of the process variation, phosphoric acid is made with the consumption of water and...

Phosphate Manufacturing

Flow Chart Waste Segregation

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible for most subcategories of the phosphate manufacturing industry. Important control measures include stringent inprocess abatement, good housekeeping practices, containment provisions, and segregation practices 8 . In the phosphorus chemicals industry (subcategories A, B, and C in Table 3), plant effluent can be segregated into noncontact cooling water, process water, and auxiliary streams comprising ion-exchange...

Table 15 Phosphate Manufacturing Industry Wastewater Treatment Practises and Unit Removal Efficiencies and Effluent pH

Phosphorus Phosphorus- Defluorinated Defluorinated Sodium Pollutant and production consuming Phosphate phosphate phosphoric phosphate method__(A)__(B)__(C) rock (D) acid (E) (F) sedimentationa Flocculation, clarification, and dewatering Total phosphate Lime treatment and sedimentationa Phosphorus Lime treatment and sedimentationa Flocculation, clarification, and dewatering Sulfate sedimentationa Fluoride Lime treatment and Lime aPreceded by recycle of phossy water and evaporation of some...

Furnace Wastes from Phosphorus Manufacture

The electric furnace process (Fig. 11) for the conversion of phosphate rock into phosphorus was described by Horton et al. 15 in a paper that also presented the results of a pilot plant study of treating the wastes produced. The process, as well as the handling of the various waste streams for pollution control, are discussed in Section 9.5.2. In processing the phosphate, the major source of wastewater is the condenser water bleedoff from the reduction furnace, the flow of which varies from 10...

Phosphate Fertilizer Industry in Eastern Europe

Waste Material Fertiliser Industry

Koziorowski and Kucharski 18 presented a survey of fertilizer industry experience in Eastern European countries and compared it with the United States and Western European equivalents. For instance, they stated that HF and silicofluoric acid are evolved during the process of Figure 12 Summary of materials balance in a pilot plant for recovery of phosphorus from phossy water (from Ref. 15). 1 ppm 1 mg L. Figure 12 Summary of materials balance in a pilot plant for recovery of phosphorus from...

Aerobic Systems

Biodegradable Tire Landfill Treatment

Aerobic decomposition of pollutants in leachate is based on processes with suspended growth microorganisms-activated sludge and or attached growth microorganisms-with different types of fixed film biological reactors. Activated sludge is one of the basic methods applied for municipal landfill leachate treatment. This process is used for biochemical oxidation of biodegradable organic compounds, but mainly for the biological removal of nitrogen 20,42-46 . Efficiency of organic compounds removal...

Frozen French Fries

For frozen French fries and other frozen potato production, large potatoes of high specific gravity and low reducing sugar content are most desirable. After washing, the potatoes are peeled by the steam or lye method. Peeling and trimming losses vary with potato quality and are in the range 15-40 . After cutting and sorting, the strips are usually water blanched. Because the blanching water is relatively warm, its leaching effect may result in high dissolved starch content in the wastewater....

Oxidation With Fenton Reagent

Organic compounds oxidation may be effected by means of Fenton reagent assisted, or not assisted, by photolysis 57,60-62 . The Fenton reaction consists of a reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous sulfate at a low pH 57,61 . As a result, free hydroxyl radicals, characterized by high reactivity, are produced according to the following reaction 3 Then, in chain reactions (4) and (5), organic compounds, marked as HRH, are oxidized, resulting in organic radicals RH production. Subsequently,...

Table 17 Rejection of Substances from Landfill Leachate by Means of Nanofiltration

Membrane Filtration Leachate Landfill

Raw leachate Permeate Retention coefficient ( COD (mgO2 L) Ammonia (mg L) Sulfate (mg L) Chloride (mg L) Calcium (mg L) Figure 18 Hybrid membrane system for landfill leachate treatment with high permeate recovery (from Ref. 81). Figure 18 Hybrid membrane system for landfill leachate treatment with high permeate recovery (from Ref. 81). at the removal of substances undergoing biodegradation, especially in the case of effluent heavily loaded with organic substances. As a result of reverse...

Federal Regulations and Laws

In the United States, Congress enacted the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 to achieve a goal of fishable and swimmable surface waters. It covers regulations of wastewater discharges 12 . Most industries must meet discharge standards for various pollutants. Specific methods of control such as pollution prevention are not specified. Many facilities use pollution prevention as a means of reducing the cost of compliance with federal regulations. State and local authorities also have responsibilities...

Project Progress Monitoring

In order to track the facilities' achievements and the overall effectiveness of the regulatory approach, pollution prevention related data must be available. Industry also needs independently verifiable data, which effectively measure pollution prevention progress both to demonstrate compliance with newly evolving environmental laws and to promote an environmentally sensitive image. A successful pollution prevention measurement needs to identify the specific objective, resource availability,...

Recent Advances in Stormwater Management and Treatment

There are many new developments in the area of stormwater management and treatment 44,45,52-61 . A useful guide for dealing with the stormwater management permit program has been developed by Barron 53 . Coppes and LeMire 54 suggest many solutions to stormwater management by combining both technology and regulations. Treatment of stormwater at airport terminals is reported by the editor of Public Works 55 , while treatment of combined stormwater and wastewater at oil company is reported by Wang...

Colorado Weschmeier - Smith Rainfall Factors

Controlling pollutants in runoff from industrial facilities, National Conference On Urban Runoff Management, EPA Seminar, Center for Envir. Res. Info. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1995 EPA 625 R-95 003. 2. Yapijakis, C. Llorente, M.T. Industrial sites stormwater management regulations and treatment, Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Land Use and Management, Canakkale, Turkey, Tubitak, June 10-13, 2002 312-317. 3. Woodar, F. Industrial...

OnSite Monitoring and Analysis of Industrial Pollutants

Hole Montes, Inc., Naples, Florida, U.S.A. Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. NEC Business Network Solutions, Irving, Texas, U.S.A. 29.1 MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTS The primary objective of monitoring and analysis of industrial pollutants is to determine the identity, concentrations, and extent of toxic chemical contamination. An essential element of any monitoring work is rapid sampling and analytical support, to match the quality objectives. Precision and...

The Netherlands

For the control of water quality, the Netherlands government identified two pathways in a tiered procedure. The first path, the emission approach, requires dischargers to apply best available and or best affordable technologies for the reduction of the environmental risk of their effluents with respect to good housekeeping, process control, choice of (raw) materials, and effluent pretreatment. Currently, this process is only iteratively guided by chemical-specific evaluation of effluent...

Water Quality Based Limitations

In the United States, as control of conventional pollutants has been significantly achieved, increased emphasis is being placed on reduction of toxic pollutants. The EPA has developed a water quality based approach to achieve desired water quality where treatment control based discharge limits have proved to be insufficient 22 . The procedure for establishing effluent limitations for point sources discharging to a water quality based segment generally involves the use of some type of...

Cement Kiln Monitoring and Control

Under the newly adopted federal regulations for facilities using hazardous waste fuels, cement kilns must comply with stringent testing and permitting requirements before they can recycle the wastes. These procedures ensure that cement companies wanting to recycle hazardous wastes as fuel will do so safely. Those facilities unable to meet the rigorous RCRA standards will not be allowed to burn hazardous waste fuel. Under the USEPA BIF rule (Burning Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial...

Figure 3 Flow diagram of physical refining process of crude palm oil and source of PORE

Palm oil mill effluent originates from two main processes sterilization and clarification stages, as the condensate and clarification sludge, respectively (Fig. 2). The clarification sludge shows higher level of solid residues compared to the sterilizer condensate. Both contain some level of unrecovered oils and fats. The final POME would of course include hydrocyclone washing and cleaning up processes in the mill 1 . Approximately 1-1.5 tons of water are required to process 1 ton of FFB. Based...

Liquid Waste Treatment Methods

Disposal and management of highly contaminated wastewater constitute a serious environmental problem due to the biorecalcitrant nature of these types of effluents, in most cases. Generally, biological treatment (mainly aerobic) is the preferred option for dealing with urban and industrial effluents because of its relative cost-effectiveness and applicability for treating a wide variety of hazardous substances 19 . Nevertheless, some drawbacks may be found when applying this technology. For...

Local Pollution Prevention Requirements

According to the CWA, qualified local publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) are given the authority to administer pretreatment programs (e.g., regulation of industrial dischargers). The POTWs can have the authority to implement regulations that are more stringent than federal guidelines (e.g., 40 CFR 433). A number of local agencies therefore use this authority to reduce the impact of industrial discharges on the operation of the POTW, reduce the concentration of toxic pollutants in POTW...

General Introduction and Objectives

Most hazardous wastes are produced in the manufacturing of products for domestic consumption, or various industrial applications. Rapid development and improvement of industrial technologies, products, and practises frequently increase the generation rate of hazardous substances (including both useful materials and waste materials). These hazardous substances, which can be in the form of gas, liquid, or solid, must be properly handled in order to protect the plant personnel, the general public,...

Table 6 Construction Costs for Selected Unitary Operations of Wastewater Treatment

Preliminary treatment C 5.79x104xQfU7 Flow equalization C 1.09x 105xQ049 Primary sedimentation C 1.09x105xQ104 Rotating biological contactor C 3.19x105xQ 92 Chemical addition C 2.36x104xQ gt L68 Stabilization pond C 9.05x105xQ127 Sludge handling C 4.26x104xQ136 Aerobic digestion C 1.47x105xQ114 Anaerobic digestion C 1.12x105xQ112 C represents the cost in USD and Q represents the flow rate of the wastewater to be treated. Source EPA, 1978. An alternative procedure for developing cost models for...

Rotating Biological Contactors RBC

Rotating Biological Contactors

Increasingly stringent requirements for the removal of organic and inorganic substances from wastewater have necessitated the development of innovative, cost-effective wastewater treatment alternatives in recent years. The aerobic rotating biological contactor (RBC) is one of the biological processes for the treatment of organic wastewater. It is another type of attached growth process that combines advantages of biological fixed-film (short hydraulic retention time, high biomass concentration,...

Desizing Pretreatment

The anaerobic biodegradation of sizes is favorable because the aerobic degradation of size-containing waste water requires approximately 1 kWh kg of BOD, while the anaerobic degradation yields 0.5-1.5 kWh kg of BOD and in addition releases a lower volume of sludge. A general problem for biological treatment steps can be identified with the demand for a rather constant feed of load into the biological system to obtain constant conditions in microbial growth. Theoretically, polymer-containing...

Treatment of Wastewater from Dyeing Processes

The wastewater from dyeing processes contains a lot of components in various concentrations, for example, dyestuff, alkali, acid, salt, and auxiliaries 85 . In a first basic step, a separation of the wastewater stream according to the degree of chemical load should be performed. A treatment of wastewater with low pollution for reuse can be achieved by the combination of adjustment of pH and temperature sedimentation, precipitation 86 flocculation (Fe2+ 3+, Al3+, polyelectrolyte) 87 filtration...

Advanced Oxidation Processes

Destruction of chromophoric and nonchromophoric pollutants in pulp and paper effluents may be achieved by advanced oxidation methods such as photocatalysis, photo-oxidation using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) UV or ozone (O3) UV systems, Fenton-type reactions, wet oxidation, and by employing strong oxidants such as ozone. Photocatalysis has gained attention for its application to aqueous phase and wastewaters for near total oxidation and elimination of organic compounds 62 . The process involves...

References

Smook, G.A. (Ed.) Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists, 2nd Ed. Angus Wilde Vancouver, Canada, 1992. 2. Kringstad, K.P. Lindstrom, K. Spent liquors from pulp bleaching (critical review). Environ. Sci. 3. U.S. EPA. Technical support document for best management practises for spent liquor management, spill prevention and control, USEPA Washington, DC, 1997. 4. Sharma, C. Mohanty, S. Kumar, S. Rao, N.J. Gas chromatographic determination of pollutants in Kraft bleachery effluent from...

Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Retentate

The purification of landfill leachate with membrane techniques helps prevent contamination of natural water sources. Besides this ecological aspect, commercial feasibility must also be considered. In this regard, membrane filtration has proved to be a justifiable and economic solution in most cases, even when the overall costs for the purification are compared with other approaches. This evaluation includes the handling of the retentate (concentrate) produced in the reverse osmosis plant,...

Table 23 Chemical Characteristics of the Effluent after Adsorption Treatment

Concentration after biological treatment Concentration after adsorption with activated carbon Conductivity (pS cm) Total dissolved solids (mg L) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (mg L) Suspended solids (mg L) Nitrate (mg L) Nitrite (mg L) Chloride (mg L) Sulfate (mg L) phosphate (mg L) Biochemical oxygen demand Nondetectable 1,082-1,159 4.9-6.4 1,950 138-159 Adsorbed organic halogen 2.6-2.0 0.47-0.41 adsorption capacity of both columns was found to be similar. However, the higher transfer rate of...

Factors Affecting Anaerobic Process Operation

Aerobic And Anaerobic Treatments

The anaerobic process functions effectively over two temperature ranges the mesophilic range of 85-100 F (29-38 C) and the thermophilic range of 120-135 F (49-57 C). Although the rates of reaction are much greater in the thermophilic range, the maintenance of higher temperatures is usually not economically justifiable. Methane organisms function over a pH range of 6.6-7.6 with an optimum near pH 7.0. When the rate of acid formation exceeds the rate of breakdown to methane, a process unbalance...

Sedimentation

Rectangular Sedimentation Tank Diagram

Sedimentation separates solids from water using gravity settling of the heavier solid particles 9 . In the simplest form of sedimentation, particles that are heavier than water settle to the bottom of a tank or basin. Sedimentation basins are used extensively in the wastewater treatment industry and are commonly found in many flow-through aquatic animal production facilities. This operation is conducted not only as part of the primary treatment, but also in the secondary treatment for...

Carbonate Sulfate and Chloride Precipitation

Carbonate precipitation can be applied within hydroxide precipitation, or separately. Advantages of carbonate precipitation over hydroxide precipitation include the potential of lower pH operation, easier settling, and improved removal efficiency. The main difference between carbonate precipitation and hydroxide precipitation is that the former's solubility is a function of carbonate concentration. Smaller metal solubilities can be provided by increasing the carbonate doses at lower pH values...

Overview of Regulations

The metal finishing industry is regulated by several federal, state, and local statutes for the control of its environmental impact. Three major federal laws regulating the releases of the industry are the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The limitations of RCRA and CAA in relation to the metal finishing industry were summarized in Section 5.6. The CWA regulates wastewater discharges, which are categorized as direct and...

Mechanisms for Transporting Contaminate in Waters

Contaminants from livestock and poultry waste (e.g., N, P, and organics) reach surface and groundwaters by various mechanisms. The pollutant entrance to the waters can be via runoff, erosion, leaching, and many other paths. Runoff occurs when the water flows across ground surfaces. It becomes a major path when rainfall takes place soon after the livestock manure is applied, over-applied, or misapplied. In an area where the soil surface is worn away by the action of wind and water, pollutant...

Treatment for Recycle Reuse and Zero Discharge

Petroleum refineries require a reliable supply of fresh water for steam generation, process cooling, product manufacturing, and other purposes. Because fresh water is becoming more valuable in many parts of the world, many locations have undertaken to reclaim and reuse waters for cooling, steam generation, and process use 73 . Bresnahan 74 presented two case studies that illustrate some of the technical challenges that were encountered when reusing water in refining and petrochemical complexes....

References On Industrial Wastewater

Water Works Assoc. 1962, 54 (5). 2. Besselievre, E.B. The Treatment of Industrial Wastes McGraw-Hill New York, NY, 1969. 3. Brownell, R.P. Chemical-biological treatment of surfactant wastewater. Proceedings of the 30th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, 1975, Vol. 30, 1085. 4. Callely, A.G. Treatment of Industrial Effluents Haisted Press New York, NY, 1976. 5. Carberry, J.B. Geyer, A.T. Adsorption of non-ionic surfactants by activated...

Water Pollution Prevention and Control

Depending on the State where the industrial plant is located, an aqueous effluent from a pretreatment facility or a complete end-of-pipe treatment facility can be discharged into a river, a lake, or an ocean, only if it meets the pretreatment standards and the effluent discharge standards established by the regulatory agencies, in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) or the State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES). The standards can be...

Table 6 Reported Chemical Compositions of Meat Processing Wastewater

Suspended solids (SS) (mg L) 3677 3574 1 122 154 113-324 15 Type of meat that slaughterhouse design ensures the complete segregation of process washwater and strict hygiene procedures to prevent cross-contamination. The mineral chemistry of the wastewater is influenced by the chemical composition of the slaughterhouse's treated water supply, waste additions such as blood and manure, which can contribute to the heavy metal load in the form of copper, iron, manganese, arsenic, and zinc, and...