Categorization in Phosphate Fertilizer Production

The fertilizer industry comprises nitrogen-based, phosphate-based, and potassium-based fertilizer manufacturing, as well as combinations of these nutrients in mixed and blend fertilizer formulations. Only the phosphate-based fertilizer industry is discussed here and, therefore, the categorization mainly involves two broad divisions (a) the phosphate fertilizer industry (A) and (b) the mixed and blend fertilizer industry (G) in which one of the components is a phosphate compound. The following...

Potato Processing And Sources Of Wastewater

High-quality raw potatoes are important to potato processing. Potato quality affects the final product and the amount of waste produced. Generally, potatoes with high solid content, low reducing sugar content, thin peel, and of uniform shape and size are desirable for processing. Potatoes contain approximately 18 starch, 1 cellulose, and 81 water, which contains dissolved organic compounds such as protein and carbohydrate 2 . Harvesting is an important operation for maintaining a low level of...

Electrooxidation Reduction

Electro-oxidation, the process of oxidizing dissolved compounds at the anode of an electrolytic cell, is a technology that many researchers have investigated for waste treatment applications, with varying results. Appropriate catalysts have been shown to enhance efficiency however, there is difficulty in keeping the most effective of these from becoming poisoned, thus reducing their practical life. Heat build-up in the cell, cross-cell reactions whereby a component may be oxidized at one...

Cement Kiln Monitoring and Control

Under the newly adopted federal regulations for facilities using hazardous waste fuels, cement kilns must comply with stringent testing and permitting requirements before they can recycle the wastes. These procedures ensure that cement companies wanting to recycle hazardous wastes as fuel will do so safely. Those facilities unable to meet the rigorous RCRA standards will not be allowed to burn hazardous waste fuel. Under the USEPA BIF rule (Burning Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial...

Pesticide Loads in Surface Runoff

Li et al. 50 developed two simple models or loading functions for estimating mean annual pesticide mass loads in surface runoff from agricultural areas. The loading functions were regression equations derived from 100 year simulation runs of a daily pesticide runoff model. Simulation runs were made for 1920 different cases, including 12 locations in the eastern United States and 80 combinations of pesticide half-lives (3-150 days) and adsorption partition coefficients (0.1-200 cm3 g). Published...

Table 3 Identification of Hazardous Wastes

Ink paint wastes containing metals such as E. Spent photographic wastes Containing silver D011 Table 4 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Graphic arts, photographic labs 7333 Advertising art 7311 Table 4 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Graphic arts, photographic labs 7333 Advertising art 7311 4. If the generator transports to another generator or an authorized facility, the generator must obtain a receipt for the generator's waste and retain records for a minimum of three...

Classification of Surfactants

Soaps and detergents are formulated products designed to meet various cost and performance standards. The formulated products contain many components, such as surfactants to tie up unwanted materials (commercial detergents usually contain only 1030 surfactants), builders or polyphosphate salts to improve surfactant processes and remove calcium and magnesium ions, and bleaches to increase reflectance of visible light. They also contain various additives designed to remove stains (enzymes),...

Assessment of Waste

Areas of waste generation were identified and characterized. It was found that water usage was 719,000 L week, with about 59 used in production, while the remainder was ultimately discharged as wastewater from cleaning and other ancillary uses. The pastry area and bread and bread rolls area contributed 35 and 36 of wastewater volume, respectively. Other wastewater arose from the boiler, the crate wash, and the staff amenities. In terms of COD loading, the pastry area, bread and bread rolls...

Figure 6 Schematic of anaerobic baffled reactor followed by thin film sulfide oxidizing reactor

With biological sulfide oxidation was carried out and evaluated. The schematic view of the combined treatment system is given in Fig. 6. The wastewater used in the study contained isopropyl acetate, sulfate, and cellular product. The COD and sulfate concentration of the wastewater were 40,000 mg L and 5000 mg L, respectively. Treatment of the wastewater using an anaerobic baffled reactor alone was found effective at 10 dilution but at higher concentration, sulfide inhibition reduced the...

Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment

The anaerobic process is applicable to both wastewater treatment and sludge digestion. It is an effective biological method that is capable of treating a variety of organic wastes. Because the anaerobic process is not limited by the efficiency of the oxygen transfer in an aerobic process, it is more suitable for treating high organic strength wastewaters (> 5 g COD L). Disadvantages of the process include slow startup, longer retention time, undesirable odors from production of hydrogen...

Composting of Hazardous Organic Wastes

Hazardous wastes can be treated in all the systems mentioned above, but long durations are usually needed to reach permitted levels of pollution. The choice of the system depends on the required time and possible cost of the treatment. Time of the treatment decreases, but the costs increase in the following sequence windrow systems-static pile system in-vessel system. To intensify the composting of hazardous solid waste, the following pretreatments can be used mechanical disintegration and...

Application of Biotechnology for Industrial Waste Treatment

Joo-Hwa Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay, and Volodymyr Ivanov Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 12.1 BIOTREATABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL HAZARDOUS Environmental biotechnology concerns the science and practical knowledge relating to the use of microorganisms and their products. Biotechnology combines fundamental knowledge in microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, and engineering knowledge of the specific processes and...

Chemical Treatment

Chemical additives are needed at some plants with recirculating cooling water systems in order to prevent corrosion and scaling. Chemical additives are also occasionally used at plants with once-through cooling water systems for corrosion controls. Scaling occurs when the concentration of dissolved materials, usually calcium- and magnesium-containing species, exceeds their solubility levels. The addition of scaling control chemicals allows a higher dissolved solids concentration to be achieved...

Detergent Manufacture and Waste Streams

Detergents, as mentioned previously, can be formulated with a variety of organic and inorganic chemicals, depending on the cleaning characteristics desired. A finished, packaged detergent customarily consists of two main components the active ingredient or surfactant, and the builder. The processes discussed in the following will include the manufacture and processing of the surfactant as well as the preparation of the finished, marketable detergent. The production of the surfactant (Fig. 1) is...

Compounds Formed during Chlorine Bleaching Process

During pulp bleaching, lignin is extensively modified by chlorination (C stage) and dissolved by alkali (E stage) into the bleaching liquor. The E stage is intended for dissolving the fragmented chloro-lignin compounds and removal of noncellulosic carbohydrates. The most important reactions are oxidation and substitution by chlorine, which lead to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds or the AOX (Table 2). Chlorine bleaching liquors exhibit COD values ranging from 900-2000 mg L and...

Desizing Pretreatment

The anaerobic biodegradation of sizes is favorable because the aerobic degradation of size-containing waste water requires approximately 1 kWh kg of BOD, while the anaerobic degradation yields 0.5-1.5 kWh kg of BOD and in addition releases a lower volume of sludge. A general problem for biological treatment steps can be identified with the demand for a rather constant feed of load into the biological system to obtain constant conditions in microbial growth. Theoretically, polymer-containing...

Bleach Fixes

In some processes, particularly paper processes, which are more easily bleached than film processes, the bleach and fixer can be combined into a single solution known as bleach-fix (also commonly known in trade jargon as a blix or a bleach-fixer). Some chemical synergy is achieved by mixing the two solutions therefore, the concentration of each can be lowered slightly to achieve the same photographic effect. The gentle oxidizing action of the bleach component is insufficient to damage the fixer...

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is mainly an organic detoxification process. In hydrolysis, a hydroxyl or hydrogen ion attaches itself to some part of the pesticide chemical molecule, either displacing part of the group or breaking a bond, thus forming two or more new compounds. The agents for acid hydrolysis most commonly used are hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid 11 . Alkaline hydrolysis uses sodium hydroxide most frequently, but the alkaline carbonates are also used. Sometimes high temperature and pressure or...

Impacts on Public Health

For a long time, detergents were utilized in laboratories for the isolation, through concentration in the foam, of mycobacteria such as the bacillus of Koch (tuberculosis), as reported in the annals of the Pasteur Institute 27 . This phenomenon of extraction by foam points to the danger existing in river waters where numerous such microorganisms may be present due to sewage pollution. The foam transported by wind could possibly serve as the source of a disease epidemic. In fact, this problem...

Current Perspective And Future Outlook

This section summarizes the main points of a recent product report 18 , which presented the new products of the detergent industry and its proposed direction in the foreseeable future. If recent product innovations sell successfully in test markets in the United States and other countries, rapid growth could begin again for the entire soap and detergent industry and especially for individual sectors of that industry. Among these new products are formulations that combine bleaching materials and...

Impacts on Drinking Water

From all the aforementioned, it is obvious that detergents find their way into drinking water supplies in various ways. As far as imparting odor to drinking water, only heavy doses of anionic surfactants yield an unpleasant odor 36 , and someone has to have a very sensitive nose to smell detergent doses of 50 mg L or less. On the other hand, it seems that the impact of detergent doses on the sense of taste of various individuals varies considerably. As reported by Cohen 10 , the U.S. Public...

Fiberspecific Processes

The activities described in this section intend to minimize or avoid the release of chemicals into the stream wastewater by substitution, optimization, reuse, and recycling. Besides a lowering of the costs for following up general wastewater treatment, benefits due to minimization of chemical consumption are intended. As there are various specific problems arising from the particular treatment steps applied for different fibers, this section concentrates on the most important problems. Table 2...

Effluent Standards in Other Countries

The control of wastewater discharges from the phosphate and phosphate fertilizer industry in various countries differs significantly, as is the case with effluents from other industries. The discharges may be regulated on the basis of the receiving medium, that is, whether the disposal is Table 11 Effluent Limitations (mg L except for pH) for Subpart G, Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Table 11 Effluent Limitations (mg L except for pH) for Subpart G, Mixed and Blend Fertilizer BOD, biochemical oxygen...

Figure 10 Proposed integrated palm oil production and POME wastewater treatment system from

The solid wastes (sludges) generated from the wastewater treatment system will be used as a mixture with EFB to form biocompost. Wastes generated from the palm oil mill contain a high percentage of degradable organic material and can be converted into value-added products and chemicals. It is expected that changes in the technologies in POME treatment could lead to a substantial reduction in terms of waste discharged. On the other hand, the palm oil industry will...

Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. Formaldehyde has found wide industrial usage as a fungicide and germicide, and in disinfectants and embalming fluids. The serious sources of indoor airborne formaldehyde are furniture, floor underlayment insulation, and environmental tobacco smoke. Urea formaldehyde (UF) is mixed with adhesives to bond veneers, particles, and fibers. It has been identified as a potential hazardous source. Formaldehyde gas may cause severe irritation to...

InProcess Recycling

Materials are processed frequently in the presence of heat, pressure, and or catalysts, to form products. As materials are reacted, combined, shaped, painted, plated, and polished, excess materials not required for subsequent stages become waste, frequently in combination with toxic Table 6 Applicable Treatment Technologies for Wastewater Reuse Table 6 Applicable Treatment Technologies for Wastewater Reuse Remove BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, nitrogen, and phosphorus Remove TDS and toxic metal ions...

Impacts on Biodegradation of Organics

Surfactant concentrations in polluted natural water bodies interfere with the self-purification process in several ways. First, certain detergents such as ABS are refractory or difficult to biodegrade and even toxic or inhibitory to microorganisms, and influence the BOD exhibited by organic pollution in surface waters. On the other hand, readily biodegradable detergents could impose an extreme short-term burden on the self-purification capacity of a water course, possibly introducing anaerobic...

Heat Treating

Heat treating aims to modify the physical properties of workpieces through the application of controlled heating and cooling cycles. Case-hardening produces a hard surface over a metal core. The surface is wear-resistant and durable. Quenching is realized using several types of solutions. Brine solutions contain sodium and calcium chloride and mineral acids. Water oil emulsions contain soaps, alcohols, oils, emulsifiers, in addition to dissolved salts. Liquid carburizing and carbonitriding...

Inspection

This step is required for refillable plastic bottles. A machine that can effectively extract a portion of the air from each plastic bottle is employed to detect the presence of any residual foreign substances. Bottles failing this test are removed from the manufacturing process and destroyed. A typical bottling machine resembles a carousel-like turret. The speed at which the bottles or cans are filled varies, but generally the filling speed is in excess of tens of thousands per hour. A sealing...

Problem and Biodegradation

Notable improvements in washing and cleaning resulted from the introduction and increasing use of synthetic detergents. However, this also caused difficulties in sewage treatment and led to a new form of pollution, the main visible effect of which was the formation of objectionable quantities of foam on rivers. Although biodegradation of surfactants in soils and natural waters was inferred by the observation that they did not accumulate in the environment, there was widespread.concern that...

Pesticides

Millions of pounds (1 lb 0.454 k) of pesticides are used on croplands, forests, lawns, and gardens in the United States each year. A large quantity of hazardous pesticides is also released by the pesticide industry to the environment. These hazardous pesticides drain off into surface waters or seep into underground water supplies. Many pesticides pose health problems if they get into drinking water and the water is not properly treated. The maximum limits for pesticides in drinking water are...

Materials

If the plant manager thinks that a material contains asbestos, and the material must be banned, rubbed, handled, or taken apart, he she should hire a trained, asbestos-removal contractor before taking any risky action. In order to determine the experience and skill of a prospective asbestos-removal contractor, the contractor should be asked these questions 1. Is the contractor certified (Ask to see the certificate). 2. Have the contractor and the contractor's workers been trained 3. Does the...

Solid Wastes Disposal

Small quantities of household CCA-treated timber waste (e.g., offcuts from a small job) could be placed in the owner's rubbish bin, with the rest of owner's household waste. CCA-treated timber waste from larger household building and demolition jobs is classified as inert waste, and can be disposed of to most suburban landfills. CCA-treated timber waste from industrial sources should only be disposed of to certain landfills. CCA-treated timber waste must not be burned or used as such.

Option of Transporting Wastes to a Licenced Facility

The company in Lenox also had an option to transport its wastes to a licenced treatment, storage or disposal facility, or permitted recycling facility, with the facility's permission. There were many licenced facilities in Massachusetts that were willing to accept the company's spent fixer and spent developer for final disposal. As a registered VSQG, the company might transport its own hazardous waste under the following conditions (a) the company transports only the waste that is generated on...

Pollution Prevention Approach

USEPA defines pollution prevention as any practice that reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering the waste stream or otherwise released to the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal, and reduces the hazards to public health and the environment. The application of pollution prevention is based on source control. Source control generally is a process of minimizing the pollution and health hazards that originate from a certain production by...

Table 8 Hazardous Wastes of Metal Finishing Industry [119

Hazardous Hazardous waste Hazard F001 Halogenated solvents used in degreasing trichloroethylene, methylene Toxic chloride, carbon tetrachloride, waste and chlorinated fluorocarbons all spent solvent mixtures blends used in degreasing containing, before use, a total of 10 or more (by volume) of one or more of the above halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F002, F004, and F005 and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. F002 Halogenated...

Separation and Recycling

Besides the replacement of substances, the improvement of processes on an optimization of the handling of rather concentrated liquors, for example, used in sizing, caustic treatment like mercerization, dyeing, finishing processes, or in textile printing processes is the next step. As a desired goal, a recycling of a main part of the substances should be attempted. Examples that can be mentioned include the recovery and regeneration of sizes and caustic soda solutions, and the recovery of...

Southdown Experience in Product Quality Monitoring

A concrete made from Southdown cement is called a Southdown concrete. Even under the TCLP testing extreme conditions, the amount of metals that leached out of the Southdown concrete were many orders of magnitude below the standards set by USEPA. In many cases the levels were, in fact, below the limits of detection for the test. One historical use of Southdown concrete has been for pipes used to transport drinking water. Drinking water is routinely tested to show that it meets Federal standards...

Removal of Anionic Detergents with Inorganic Gels

Inorganic gels exhibiting ion-exchange and sorption characteristics are more stable than synthetic organic resins, which have also been used for the removal of detergents from wastewaters 95 . The sorption efficiency and number of cycles for which inorganic gels can be used without much loss in sorption capacity would compensate the cost involved in their preparation. Zinc and copper ferrocyanide have been shown to possess promising sorption characteristics for cationic and anionic surfactants....

Table 9 Cracking Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

_Probability of occurrence, percent less than or equal to BOD5 14.3 (5.0) 72.93 (25.5) 466.18 (163) COD 27.74 (9.7) 217.36 (76.0) 2516.8 (880) TOC 5.43 (1.9) 41.47 (14.5) 320.32 (112) O& G 2.86 (1.0) 31.17 (10.9) 364.65 (127.5) Values represent kg 1000 m3 (lb 1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3 1000 m3 feedstock throughput (gallons bbl). BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TOC, total organic carbon TSS, total suspended solids O& G, oil and grease. Source...

Treatment Methods

Wastewater from fruit and vegetable processing plants contains mainly carbohydrates such as starches, sugars, pectin, as well as vitamins and other components of the cell wall. About 75 of the total organic matter is soluble therefore, it cannot be removed by mechanical or physical means. Thus, biological and chemical oxidations are the preferred means for wastewater treatment 21,22 . In the United States, there are three geographical areas of major potato processing activity (a) Idaho, eastern...

UASB and EGSB Treatment Systems

Anaerobic treatment, especially thermophilic treatment, offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of high-strength, hot wastewater. The thermophilic process, compared to the mesophilic anaerobic process, has the advantages of increased loading rate and the elimination of cooling before treatment. Furthermore, the heat content of the wastewater would be available for post-treatment. Loading rates up to 80 kgCOD m3 day and more have been reached in laboratory-scale thermophilic reactors...

Table 4 Roles of Biotechnological Applications in Hazardous Waste Management

Examples of biotechnological application Hazardous waste identification Prevention of hazardous waste production Hazardous waste incineration Hazardous waste landfilling Detection of toxicity, mutagenicity, or pathogenicity by conventional methods or by fast biotechnological tests. Production, trade, or use of specific products containing nonbiodegradable hazardous substances may be banned based on biotechnological tests of biodegradability and toxicity. Selection of environmentally preferred...

Tobacco Smoke

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major indoor pollutant. Both the National Research Council (NRC) and USEPA have indicated that passive smoking significantly increases the risk of lung cancer in adults and respiratory illness in children. It is composed of irritating gases and carcinogenic tar particles. Nonsmokers breathing ETS are called involuntary smokers, passive smokers, or second-hand smokers. There are more than 4700 chemical compounds in cigarette combustion products, such as...

Wastewater Treatment Methods

The soap and detergent manufacturing industry makes routine use of various physicochemical and biological pretreatment methods to control the quality of its discharges. A survey of these treatment processes is presented in Table 11 13 , which also shows the usual removal efficiencies of each unit process on the various pollutants of concern. According to Nemerow 38 and Wang and Krofta 39 , the origin of major wastes is in washing and purifying soaps and detergents and the resulting major...

Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration

Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration appear similar to reverse osmosis superficially, but rather than relying on osmotic principles for removing dissolved materials, they are true filtration processes for removing finely divided particles using a membrane filter. Neither ultrafiltration nor nanofiltration have found widespread use in photoprocessing to date, because (1) simple wound cartridge filters are cheaper and more convenient to use for ordinary process dirt, and (2) situations where solids...

Toxicity of Detergents

There is an upper limit of surfactant concentration in natural waters above which the existence of aquatic life, particularly higher animal life, is endangered. Trout are particularly sensitive to concentrations as low as 1 ppm and show symptoms similar to asphyxia 4 . On the other hand, numerous studies, which extended over a period of months and required test animals to drink significantly high doses of surfactants, showed absolutely no apparent ill effects due to digested detergents. Also,...

Wastewater Characteristics and Sources

Wastewaters from the manufacturing, processing, and formulation of inorganic chemicals such as phosphorus compounds, phosphates, and phosphate fertilizers cannot be exactly characterized. The wastewater streams are usually expected to contain trace or large concentrations of all raw materials used in the plant all intermediate compounds produced during manufacture all final products, coproducts, and byproducts and the auxiliary or processing chemicals employed. It is desirable from the...

Wastewater from Associated Processes

Most of the water consumed in a dairy processing plant is used in associated processes such as the cleaning and washing of floors, bottles, crates, and vehicles, and the cleaning-in-place (CIP) of factory equipment and tanks as well as the inside of tankers. Most CIP systems consist of three steps a prerinse step to remove any loose raw material or product remains, a hot caustic wash to clean equipment surfaces, and a cold final rinse to remove any remaining traces of caustic. 13.3...

Atmospheric Impacts

Atmospheric contaminants, in dissolved, gaseous, or particulate form, enter stormwater runoff through either the process of precipitation or as dustfall gases also enter by direct absorption at the earth's surface. The deposition rates of particulate atmospheric contaminants in US urban areas vary from 3.5 to over 35 tons km2 month 26 , and the higher rates are found in congested industrial areas and business districts. In addition to particulate matter, many other contaminants are contained...

AX 39634 mgL x 3M mdny x JL

Where G m3 of CH4 produced day G 0.351 (4250)(360)-(1.42)(142.7) 0.351(1530-202.63) 465 m3 CH4 day G 5.62 (4250)(0.0951 MG day)(8.34)-(1.42)(314) 16,433.5 ft3 day (465 m3 day) Heat required can be estimated by calculating the energy required to raise the influent wastewater temperature to 35 C (95 F) and allowing 1 F (0.56 C) heat loss per day of detention time. Average wastewater temperature 30 C (86 F) and heat transfer efficiency 50 .

Adsorption by Activated Carbon

The adsorption of TNT and other explosive wastes on activated carbon has been one of the most common treatment technologies used by military ammunition plants. This technology is effective at removing a wide variety of explosive contaminants from water, but is nondestructive and expensive to operate. Moreover, after the carbon is exhausted, it has to be incinerated or disposed of into a hazardous waste disposal site. The disposal of used carbon is very costly. Batch reactors and fixed-bed...

Blending and Packaging

Blending is the final step in producing finished petroleum products to meet quality specifications and market demands. The largest volume operation is the blending of various gasoline stocks (including alkylates and other high-octane components) and antiknock (tetraethyl lead), antirust, anti-icing, and other additives. Diesel fuels, lube oils, and waxes involve blending of various components and additives. Packaging at refineries is generally highly automated and restricted to high-volume...

Advanced Oxidation Treatment

Oxidative processes have been used for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with organic compounds. Direct oxidation of aqueous solutions containing organic contaminants can be carried out under a variety of conditions. Catalytic oxidation of aromatics contaminated wastewater has shown that the ring cleavage step is very fast at moderate pressures and temperatures. Oxidation may also be carried out by enervation of hydroxyl radicals in sufficient quantities by ultraviolet radiation alone or...

Alkylation

Alkylation is the reaction of an isoparaffin (usually isobutane) and an olefin (propylene, butylene, amylenes) in the presence of a catalyst at carefully controlled temperatures and pressures to produce a high-octane alkylate for use as a gasoline blending component. Propane and butane are also produced. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used catalyst, although hydrofluoric acid is also used. Figure 5 shows a flow diagram of the alkylation process using sulfuric acid 6 . The reactor products are...

Biodegradable Hazardous Gases

The CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances contains many substances released in industry as gaseous hazards and which can be treated biotechnologically (Table 1), including the following chloroform, trichloroethylene, 1, 2-dibromoethane, 1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, carbontetrachloride, xylenes, dibromochloropropane, toluene, methane, methylene chloride, 1, 1-dichloroethene, bis (2-chloroethyl) ether, 1, 2-dichloroethane, chlorine, 1, 1, 2-trichloroethane, ethylbenzene, 1, 1, 2,...

Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor

Soft drink wastewater can also be treated by an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR), which is similar in design to the upflow expanded-bed reactor. Influent wastewater enters the reactor from the bottom. Biomass grows as a biolayer around heavy small media particles. At a certain upflow velocity, the weight of the media particles equals the drag force exerted by the wastewater. The particles then become fluidized and the height of the fluidized bed is stabilized. Packing size of 0.3-0.8 mm...

Centrifuging

Centrifuging is the process of separating two or more materials of dissimilar specific gravity by a rotary spinning (centrifugal) action. Centrifuges are more expensive capital investments than filters, although they generally produce drier cakes of solids and may require less operating labor. In photographic processing, centrifuges have found limited use in some silver recovery applications, and in Kodachrome process operations for recovering color coupler (see subsequent subsection, Coupler...

Conversion Coatings

Conversion coating is one of the main categories of coating and it is widely applied in metal finishing processes. The purpose of conversion coating is to form a film of a substance that is bonded by the metal coating. This film converts the characteristics of the metal surface into a structure that is more resistant to external effects or amenable to further processing. Chromating, phosphating, passivation, metal coloring, and anodizing are among the common applications of the process....

Composting

Composting can be defined as the biological degradation of organic materials under aerobic conditions into relatively stable products, brought about by the action of a variety of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and protozoa. The process of composting may be divided into two main stages stabilization and maturation. During stabilization, three phases may be distinguished first a phase of rising temperature, secondly the thermophilic phase where high temperature is maintained, and thirdly...

Drainage Basin Sediment Production

Average annual sediment production values from a catchment area depend on factors such as soil type, land uses, topography, and the existence of lakes and reservoirs. Stream flow sampling can yield relationships of suspended sediment discharge and water flow, such as the typical sediment-rating curve shown in Fig. 8. With the long-term sediment flow relationship established, it can be combined with a long-term flow-frequency curve to obtain average annual production values. Data from over 250...

Description of Processes and Operations Electroplating

Electroplating is defined as coating a metal surface with another metal by applying electric current (electrolysis). Electroplating baths contain metal ions that are reduced to a metallic state on the metal being plated. The metal being plated serves as the cathode. The anode is mostly the metal providing plating by dissolution in the bath solution. If an inert metal serves as the anode, the bath solution is replenished by the addition of a salt of the metal as it is consumed by plating....

Electrolytic Decomposition

Wastes such as spent baths and alkaline descalers containing high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by electrolytic decomposition. Cyanide waste is subjected to anodic electrolysis at elevated temperatures and cyanide is broken down to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. The reaction may take a long time, particularly for the reduction of residual cyanide concentration to a few mg L. The process can be supported by the addition of strong oxidizing agents or NaCl solution, which upon...

Other Methods

Room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) has been used as a screening technique for PCBs. It is based on detecting the phosphorescence emitted from organic compounds adsorbed on solid substrates at ambient temperatures, which is unlike conventional low-temperature phosphorimetry. The technique is used to obtain a solution containing the materials to be analyzed using rapid extraction procedures (1-3 min). A few microliters of the sample solution are then spotted on a filter paper. The spot is...

Direct Injection Stopper

In a direct injection-stopper, a 12-17 ft (1 ft 30.84cm) deep borehole is drilled using a hollow-stem auger with 8 in. (1 in. 2.54 cm) outside diameter. A sample probe is inserted and borehole walls are allowed to collapse as the auger is pulled. The hole is sealed with a bentonite slurry plug, and the probe is sealed with a stopper and screw cap. Samples are collected by syringe after a two-day equilibration period and analyzed by a GC. The results from this method correlated well with those...

Coagulation Flocculation

Coagulation is used to destabilize the stable fine SS, while flocculation is used to grow the destabilized SS, so that the SS become heavier and larger enough to settle down. The Coagulation-flocculation process can be used to remove fine SS from bakery wastewater. It normally acts as a preconditioning process for sedimentation and or dissolved air flotation. The wastewater is preconditioned by coagulants such as alum. The pH and coagulant dosage are important in the treatment results. Liu and...

Pesticide Manufacturing

There are more than 100 major pesticide manufacturing plants in the United States. Figure 1 presents the geographical locations of these plants 7 . Specific pesticide manufacturing operations are usually unique and are characteristic only of a given Almost all pesticides are organic compounds that contain active ingredients for specific applications. Based on 500 individual pesticides of commercial importance and perhaps as many as 34,000 distinct major formulated products, pesticide products...

Control of Whole Effluent Toxicity

Any treatment process that can remove the toxicity-causing constituents can reduce wholeeffluent toxicity of a discharge. If the primary cause of effluent toxicity can be identified through the TIE or TRE procedures, specific treatment processes can be incorporated into the existing treatment system to control the toxicity. However, for a complex wastewater such as that from refinery and petrochemical facilities, the cause of toxicity may not be easily identified. The toxicity can be caused by...

Fungal Treatment

Several types of industrial wastes contain phenols. Many of these compounds are extremely harmful as they are highly toxic both towards microorganisms and vertebrates 61 . Enzymatic approaches to removing phenols have been tried for some years as they have several advantages compared with the conventional methods (solvent extraction, chemical oxidation, absorbance on active carbons, etc.) 62 . Recently, results have been obtained for the removal of phenols using phenol oxidizers, which catalyze...

Comparison of Different Treatments of Hazardous Wastes

Usually, the hazardous substance can be removed or treated by physical, chemical, physicochemical, or biological methods. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are shown in Table 2. The advantages of biotechnological treatment of hazardous wastes are biodegradation or detoxication of a wide spectrum of hazardous substances by natural microorganisms and availability of a wide range of biotechnological methods for complete destruction of hazardous wastes without production of secondary...

Hazardous Wastes of Nonchemical Industries

The coal industry, mining industry, hydrometallurgy, and metal industry are sources of solid and liquid wastes that may contain heavy metals, sulfides, sulfuric and other acids, and some toxic reagents used in industrial processes. The electronics and mechanical production industries are sources of hazardous wastes containing organic solvents, surfactants, and heavy metals. Nuclear facilities produce solid and liquid wastes containing radionuclides. Large-scale accidents on nuclear facilities...

Health Risk of Asbestos

Asbestos has been shown to cause cancer of the lung and stomach according to studies of workers and others exposed to asbestos. There is no level of exposure to asbestos fibers that experts can assume is completely safe. Some asbestos materials can break into small fibers that can float in the air, and these fibers can be inhaled. These tiny fibers are small, cannot be seen, and can pass through the filters of normal vacuum cleaners and get back into the air. Once inhaled, asbestos fibers can...

Heavy Metals

In the pesticide industry, metals are used principally as catalysts or as raw materials that are incorporated into the active ingredients, for example, metallo-organic pesticides. Priority pollutant metals commonly incorporated into metallo-organic pesticides include arsenic, cadmium, copper, and mercury. For metals not incorporated into the active ingredients, copper is found or suspected in wastewaters from at least eight pesticides, where it is used as a raw material or catalyst zinc becomes...

In Situ Treatment

In in situ treatment or disposal, contaminated surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment are treated directly in contaminated sites. This method does not require movement of contaminated materials. The main advantage is significant cost savings however, it generally requires longer time periods. In addition, there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in water and soil characteristics and because the efficacy of the process is more difficult to...

Electrical Hazards

Overhead power lines, downed electrical wires, and buried cables all pose a danger of shock or electrocution if workers contact or sever then during site operations. Electrical equipment used on site may also pose a hazard to workers. To help minimize this hazard, low-voltage equipment with ground-fault interrupters, and water-tight, corrosion-resistant connecting cables should be used on site. In addition, lightning is a hazard during outdoor operations, particularly for workers handling metal...

Figure 1 Flow diagram indicating the products and sources of wastes from a slaughterhouse

Figures are for normal farm conditions and may vary for temporary holding accommodation depending on feeding and watering regimes. For the purposes of waste treatment, volume is not as useful as knowing the pollution load. Denmead 6 estimated that 8.8 lb (4 kg) dry organic solids cattle and 1.65 lb (0.75 kg) dry organic solids sheep or lamb would be produced during an overnight stock of animals in the holding pens of a slaughterhouse. Table 2 Raw Materials Segregated from a Commercial Steer...

Solution

The load to the plant is increased to 225 m3 day (59,400 gal day). (a) Anaerobic process. New effluent concentration from example 3 SRTmin 15 days T 35 C a 0.14 b 0.02 ' 0.0005 L (mg-day) Xv 5000 mg L CODR 10,500 mg L and volume 648 m3 (0.1712 MG). The new detention time is The COD effluent from the anaerobic process can be estimated by The COD removed is CODremoved CODR-CODE 10,500-1273 9227 mg L New gas production. The sludge yield is (0.14x9227-0.02x5000x2.9) mg Lx59,400 (lb MG) mg L 9227 mg...

Emissions Control Waste Transportation and Waste Disposal

The NESHAP asbestos rule prohibits visible emissions to the outside air by requiring emission control procedures and appropriate work practises during collection, packaging, transportation, or disposal of friable ACM waste. All ACM must be kept wet until sealed in a leak-tight container that includes the appropriate label. The following table provides a simplified reference for building owners regarding the key existing NESHAP requirements. Under the expanded authority of RCRA, a few states...

Landfill Runoff and Leachate

The usual method of industrial solid waste disposal involves landfilling either in sanitary or secure landfills. Nevertheless, prior to the 1970s when landfill leachate was recognized as a potential source of groundwater and surface water pollution, only about 25 of the landfills in the United States were classified as sanitary, and none as secure landfills 28 . As previously discussed in Sections 19.3.4 and 19.3.5 with regard to stockpiles of raw and spent materials, the generation of leachate...

Erosion Process and Controlling Factors

The land surface loses soil particles continually and they are transported downstream with overland runoff and in stream flow until deposition occurs in lakes, estuaries, or coastal areas. As reported by Novotny and Chesters 28 , soil particles by themselves comprise a major pollutant, in the form of suspended solids, turbidity, and sedimentation of waterways. Additionally, eroded soil (and especially its fines) is a primary carrier of many other pollutants from contaminated industrial sites...

NV day 143 0023 kgm1

Where A 304,000 m2 30.4 ha (75 acres). The area required is 75 acres (30.4 ha). Natural Treatment Systems Stabilization Ponds and Aerated Lagoons. A wastewater pond, sometimes called a stabilization pond, oxidation pond, or sewage lagoon, consists of a large, shallow earthen basin in which wastewater is retained long enough for natural processes of treatment to occur. Oxygen necessary for biological action is obtained mainly from photosynthetic algae, although some is provided by diffusion from...

Mercerization

, r Xeutiali atioii Mercerized products importance to keep the energy consumption of the process within reasonable dimensions. Typical values for energy consumption are 0.2-0.3 kWh kg of evaporated water. Large amounts of waste energy are released from the condensation of the evaporated water and have to be used in the form of warm water. Care has to be taken to achieve a reuse of the warm water because the degree of heat recovery is essential to obtain an acceptable return on investment (ROI)...

Noise

Noise usually comes from the compressed air and the running machines. It not only disturbs nearby residents, but can harm bakery workers' hearing. It is reported that sound more than 5 dB(A) above background can be offensive to people. A survey of bakery workers' exposure showed that the average range is 78-85 dB (A), with an average value of 82 dB (A). Ear plugs can help to effectively reduce the suffering. Other noise control measures include the reduction of source noise, use of noise...

Figure 4 Metal hydroxide solubilities From

Complexes CdOH+ and Cd(OH)ias the pH approaches to optimum pH. Cd(OH) is as mentioned above, independent of pH and constitutes a limit to minimum solubility at all points near the optimum pH. Beyond the optimum pH of 11.2, solubility increases due to increasing concentration of negatively charged complexes and is determined to a great extent by Cd(OH)j an(j k i ii) .-. . Optimum pH is quite important for many of the metals because their solubility changes abruptly around the optimum pH. In...

Table 11 Characteristics of Typical Spent Stream of Biologicals Production Plant at Greenfield IN [20

Total solids (TS) (mg L) 4,000-8,500 Suspended solids (mg L) 200-800 Percentage suspended solids 5-10 BOD, biochemical oxygen demand. waste is around 0.66. The waste contains volatile matter as 95 of TS present in the waste, containing easily degradable biopolymers such as fats and proteins. Table 11 presents the characteristics of spent streams generated from a typical biological production plant, Eli Lilly and Co., at Greenfield, IN 19,20 .

Filtration

Multimedia filtration has been used in the pesticide industry for two purposes (a) suspended solids removal prior to activated carbon or resin adsorption applied as a pesticide removal pretreatment, and (b) tertiary polishing after biological oxidation and before tertiary activated carbon treatment. With more stringent discharge requirements adopted by regulatory agencies, the increasing use of filtration for tertiary polishing is widespread in every industry, including the pesticide industry....

Packaging and Storage

Packaging the finished pesticide into a marketable container is the last operation conducted at a formulation plant. This operation is usually carried out in conventional filling and packaging units. By moving from one unit to another, the same liquid filling line is frequently used to fill products from several formulation units. Packages of almost every size and type are used, including 1, 2, and 5 gallon cans, 30 and 55 gallon drums, glass bottles, bags, cartons, and plastic jugs. Aerosol...

Permit System for Process Operation Waste Transportation and InPlant Waste Handling

All cement kilns burning hazardous waste fuels will have to obtain a permit from USEPA and local regulatory agencies. Because the permitting process can be lengthy, cement kilns already burning hazardous wastes will be subject to regulation almost immediately under what is known as interim status. Interim status is a standard regulatory approach used when new regulations are approved under RCRA to bring existing facilities under the new regulations without delay. Trucks transporting hazardous...

Potato Flour

Potato flour is the oldest commercial processed potato product. Although widely used in the baking industry, production growth rates have not kept pace with most other potato products. A flow diagram of the process is shown in Fig. 6. After the prewash, the potatoes are peeled, usually with steam. Trimming requirements are not as high as for most potato products. The flaking operation requires well-cooked potatoes the tubers are conveyed directly from the cooker to the dryer, where 4-5...

Liquid Liquid Extraction

This is a process mainly used in power plants for removal of soluble organics or chemically charged pollutants. The required chemicals are immiscible solvents that may contain chelating agents. It may require pH adjustments. The removal efficiency for inorganic pollutants is as follows

Polynuclear Aromatics

Seventeen priority pollutant compounds can be classified as polynuclear aromatics (PNA). These compounds consist of two or more benzene rings that share a pair of carbon atoms. They are all derived from coal tar, with naphthalene being the largest constituent. Naphthalene derivatives such as alpha-naphthylamine and alpha-naphthol are used in some pesticide processes therefore, naphthalene is by far the most prevalent PNA priority pollutant in the industry. Acenaphthene, anthracene, fluorene,...

Physico Chemical Secondary Treatment

Chemical treatment of meat-plant wastes is not a common practise due to the high chemical costs involved and difficulties in disposing of the large volumes of sludge produced. There are, however, instances where it has been used successfully. Nemerow and Agardy 15 report a treatment facility that used FeCl3 to reduce the BOD from 1448 to 188 mg L (87 reduction) and the suspended solids from 2975 to 167 mg L (94 reduction), with an operation cost of US 68 per million gallons. Using chlorine and...

Medical Examination and Medical Surveillance

OSHA also requires medical examinations under its General Industry Standard for any employee exposed to fiber levels in the air at or above the OSHA action level (0.1 f cc) and or the excursion limit (1.0 f cc). In both cases the action level and excursion limit the OSHA medical examination requirement applies if the exposure occurs for at least one day per year. Medical surveillance is defined as a periodic comprehensive review of a worker's health status. The required elements of an...

Monthly Inspections

The owner or operator must conduct comprehensive monthly inspections of aboveground storage equipment. This inspection includes (a) identifying cracks, area of wear, corrosion, poor maintenance and operating practises, excessive settlement of structures, separation or swelling of tank insulation, malfunctioning equipment, safety interlocks, safety trips, automatic shutoffs, leak detection, and monitoring, warning, or gauging equipment that may not be operating properly (b) visually inspecting...

Pretreatment of PORE

The first step in ensuring satisfactory performance of a PORE treatment plant is to remove oil and fat from the MRE. The separation is carried out using several methods such as fat traps, tilted-plate separators, and dissolved flotation units. Beside physical separations, the addition of chemical flocculants and coagulants also helps in reducing the total fatty matter and other suspended solids. Before the commencement of the biological treatment, the pH of the PORE is adjusted to the desired...

Material Handling and Storage

Material handling and storage operations can cause two types of fugitive emissions (a) low-level leaks from process equipment, and (b) episodic fugitive emissions, where an event such as equipment failure results in a sudden large release. Often, methods for reducing low-level equipment leaks result in fewer episodes, and vice versa. Methods for reducing or eliminating both types of fugitive emissions can be divided into two groups (a) leak detection and repair and (b) equipment modification....

Process Improvement With Reduction of Retentate Volume

Improvement of membrane technology can be carried out using the reverse osmosis process with high operating pressure close to 12 MPa instead of the standard 6.5 MPa. This is exemplified by the DT-reverse osmosis module 81,82,99 . In such a solution, recovery of permeate has been achieved by osmotic pressure and the concentration factor of dissolved compounds can be increased tenfold to 90 . This technique is frequently combined with a seeding technique, which allows for elimination of the...

Reactors

The common way to remove vaporous or gaseous pollutants from gas or air streams is to pass contaminated gases through bioscrubbers containing suspensions of biodegrading microorganisms or through a biofilter packed with porous carriers covered by biofilms of degrading microorganisms. Depending on the nature and volume of polluted gas, the biofilm carriers may be cheap porous substrates, such as peat, wood chips, compost, or regular artificial carriers such as plastic or metal rings, porous...

United Kingdom

The biological testing of waste water initially only consist of acute toxicity screening with luminescent bacteria (Microtox) and a 24 hour Daphnia lethality test for freshwater or a 24 hour Oyster larvae test for estuarine or marine waters to reveal the need for further testing 12,198,199 . The results of these tests classify the permit requirements for the effluent in four categories. The most stringent class requires the effluent to be monitored with three or four acute toxicity tests...

Nitro Compounds

This family of organonitrogen pesticides includes the nitrophenols and their salts, for example, Dinoseb and the substituted dinitroanilines, trifluralin, and nitralin. Figure 3 shows a typical commercial process for the production of a dinitroaniline herbicide 8 . In this example, a chloroaromatic is charged to a nitrator with cyclic acid and fuming nitric acid. The crude product is then cooled to settle out spent acid, which can be recovered and recycled. Oxides of nitrogen Figure 1...