Ionizing Radiation Hazards

Radioactive materials emit one or more of three types of harmful radiation alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha radiation has limited penetration ability and is usually stopped by clothing and the outer layers of the skin. Alpha radiation poses little threat outside the body, but can be hazardous if materials that emit alpha radiation are inhaled or ingested. Beta radiation can cause harmful beta burns to the skin and damage the subsurface blood system. Beta radiation is also hazardous if materials...

Oily Wastewater Treatment

Oily wastewater treatment may be applied to both combined and segregated wastewaters. However, effective removal of characteristic parameters is most efficiently carried out in segregated waste streams. This point is of importance for priority pollutant and total toxic organics removal. Two main parameters of the oily wastewaters are oil and grease, and toxic organics. The treatment scheme for oily waste is determined by the form of the oil and organic content. Oil can be found as free,...

References

Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization. In Waste Treatment Plant Sastry, C.A., Hashim, M.A., Agamuthu, P., Eds. Narosa Publishing House New Delhi, India, 1995 338-360. 2. Ma, A.N. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent. In Oil Palm and the Environment A Malaysian Perspective Singh, G., Lim, K.H., Leng, T., David, L.K., Eds. Malaysian Oil Palm Growers Council Selangor, Malaysia, 1999 113-126. 3. Basiron, Y. Darus, A. The oil palm industry from pollution to zero waste. The...

Drug Mixing Formulation and Preparation Plants

Drug formulating processes consist of mixing (liquids or solids), palletizing, encapsulating, and packaging. Raw materials utilized by a drug formulator and packager may include ingredients such as sugar, corn syrup, cocoa, lactose, calcium, gelatin, talc, diatomaceous, earth, alcohol, wine, glycerin, aspirin, penicillin, and so on. These plants are mainly engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals primarily of a nonprescription type, including medications for arthritis, coughs, colds, hay...

Figure 3 Flow diagram of physical refining process of crude palm oil and source of PORE

Palm oil mill effluent originates from two main processes sterilization and clarification stages, as the condensate and clarification sludge, respectively (Fig. 2). The clarification sludge shows higher level of solid residues compared to the sterilizer condensate. Both contain some level of unrecovered oils and fats. The final POME would of course include hydrocyclone washing and cleaning up processes in the mill 1 . Approximately 1-1.5 tons of water are required to process 1 ton of FFB. Based...

IPPC Directive of the European Community

In the legislation of different national governments, some limits were defined especially for wastewater and air. The activities in Europe are covered by the Council Directive 96 61 EC concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) 9 . This means that all environmental media (water, air, energy, ground) and a comprehensive description of the production have to be considered. In addition a broad harmonization of requirements for the approval of industrial plants can be reached....

Pollution Prevention in Rinsing

Rinsing (see Section 5.2 for a description of purpose and requirements) is the most extensively studied system due to its importance in pollution prevention. There are many alternatives that have been applied for pollution prevention. These alternatives can be divided into two groups alternative rinsing practices and rinse water recycling and recovery techniques. Alternative rinsing practices are shown in Table 14 4 . The applications given in the table are grouped into three categories 4 ....

Introduction

The dairy industry is generally considered to be the largest source of food processing wastewater in many countries. As awareness of the importance of improved standards of wastewater treatment grows, process requirements have become increasingly stringent. Although the dairy industry is not commonly associated with severe environmental problems, it must continually consider its environmental impact particularly as dairy pollutants are mainly of organic origin. For dairy companies with good...

Hydroxide Precipitation Method

In this method, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, or sodium aluminate can be fed to the spent fixer for precipitation of silver ions as insoluble silver hydroxide precipitates. Figure 7 indicates that the residual silver concentration in the hydroxide precipitation treated effluent can be about 1 mg L at pH 12 19 . The advantage of this method is its low cost. Its disadvantages are (a) the residual silver concentration in the treated effluent (about...

Solid Waste Treatment Methods

Many of the abovementioned treatment methods for liquid waste are suitable for the treatment of solid liquid waste arising from the two-phase decanter (alpeorujo). Some of these methods are also appropriate for the treatment of solid waste (orujo), such as recycling methods (composting and livestock feeding). In this respect, a distinction should be made between aerobic treatment systems for liquid waste (such as activated sludge, trickling filter, bioremediation) and aerobic treatment systems...

InPlant Control and Recycle

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible, particularly in the soap manufacturing subcategories where maximum flows may be 100 times the minimum. Considerably less in-plant water conservation and recycle are possible in the detergent industry, where flows per unit of product are smaller. The largest in-plant modification that can be made is the changing or replacement of the barometric condensers (subcategories A, B, D, and E). The wastewater quantity...

Table 6 Raw Wastewater Characteristics of Phosphate Fertilizer Industry Retention Ponds

Suspended solids (mg L) 800-1200 pH (unit) 1-2 Ammonia (mg L) Sulfate (mg L) Chloride (mg L) Total phosphate (mg L) Fluoride (mg L) Aluminum (mg L) Iron (mg L) 450-500 4000 58 3-5M 6-8.5M 110 85 60-100 ammonium phosphate (c) phosphates and fluoride wastes from phosphate and superphosphate production (d) acidic spillages from sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid production (e) spent solutions from the regeneration of ion-exchange units (f) phosphate, chromate, copper sulfate, and zinc wastes from...

Table 9 Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater Producing Allopathic Medicines [16

Range of concentration Average concentration BOD (mg L) COD (mg L) BOD COD ratio Suspended solids (mg L) Volatile acids (mg L) Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg L) Phenols (mg L) 6.5-7.0 1,200-1,700 2,000-3,000 0.57-0.6 300-400 50-80 50-100 65-72 various pharmaceuticals. Characteristics of the waste generated vary greatly depending upon the manufacturing process and raw materials used in the production of various medicines. These plants are mainly involved in the production of antitoxins, antisera,...

Cleaner Production In The Bakery Industry 25101 Concepts

The production of bakery products involves many operation units that may cause a variety of wastes. Most bakery industries are of small or medium size, and are often located in densely populated areas, which makes environmental problems more critical. Nevertheless, the conventional end-of-pipe treatment philosophy has its restrictions in dealing with these problems. It only addresses the result of inefficient and wasteful production processes, and should be considered only as a final option....

Alcohol

Molasses and sweet potatoes are used as the raw materials for alcohol fermentation. In Japan, to improve wastewater quality, the trend of importing crude alcohol and refining it increased in the 1970s. Here the case of alcohol production using sugar cane molasses as raw material is introduced. It is also replaced for example by acetic acid. The raw materials necessary to produce 1 kL of 95 alcohol are 3.12 tons of molasses, 1.2kg of urea, and 1.2kg of ammonium sulfate. The input of N and P is...

Biological Filters

Biological filters can also be used for treating meat industry wastes. In this process the aerobic microorganisms grow as a slime or film that is supported on the surface of the filter medium. The wastewater is applied to the surface and trickles down while air percolates upwards through the medium and supplies the oxygen required for purification (Fig. 6). The treated water along with Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment system. Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment...

Electrolytic Silver Recovery

Electrolysis, or more specifically electrowinning, is the most widely used and universally applicable method for silver recovery in the photoprocessing industry. An electrolytic silverrecovery cell consists of a cathode and an anode. Oxidation occurs at the anode (positive electrode) and reduction at the cathode (negative electrode). Silver deposits on the cathode during electrolysis when a direct current is passed through the silver-bearing photoprocessing solution. After sufficient silver has...

Sizing Desizing

Before weaving, the warp is covered with a layer of polymer to withstand the mechanical stress (abrasion, tension) during weaving. These polymer coatings are so-called sizes. Normally native starch, modified starch like carboxymethyl-starch (CMS), carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), polyvinylalcohols (PVA), polyacrylates, and proteins can be used. The amount of added polymer for staple yarns like Co is between 8 and 20 of the weight of the warp. As a result, in many cases the final amount of polymer...

In Situ Ion Exchange Method

With the in situ ion-exchange method (Fig. 5), dilute sulfuric acid is used to precipitate the silver in the resin beads as silver sulfide instead of removing it with regenerant. The resin that is inside the ion exchange unit is used for many cycles without a loss in capacity. When the resin eventually loses its capacity to recover silver, or when there is sufficient silver to make recovery worthwhile, it is sent to a silver refiner who incinerates it to remove the silver. This may occur after...

Electrolytic Metal Recovery

Electrolytic metal recovery, or electrowinning, is the recovery of metals from solution using the electroplating process. It has been applied in many metal-plating processes such as PCB manufacturing, and rolling mills. Cadmium, tin, copper, solder alloy, silver, and gold are among the metals commonly recovered by electrowinning 4,57 . Electrowinning cannot be applied to chromium. It is applied to the static rinse following plating by circulating the bath solution through the electrowinning...

Rubber Fabricating Operations

Rubber fabricating operations include latex-dipped, extruded, and molded goods (LDEM), and general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber (GMEF). There are an estimated 1385 rubber fabricating plants in the United States. No treatment method descriptions are currently available for this subcategory. Wastewater treatment technology consistent with equalization and sedimentation may permit compliance with BPT regulations. Table 17 Toxic Pollutant Removal Efficiency at Emulsion Crumb Rubber Plant...

Lube Oil Finishing

Solvent-refined and dewaxed lube oil stocks can be further refined by clay or acid treatment to remove color-forming and other undesirable materials. Continuous contact filtration, in which an oil-clay slurry is heated and the oil removed by vacuum filtration, is the most widely used subprocess. Acid treatment of lubricating oils produces acid-bearing wastes occurring as rinse waters, sludges, and discharges from sampling, leaks, and shutdowns. The waste streams are also high in dissolved and...

Wastewater Treatment 551 Methodology

Treatment of metal finishing wastewaters is based on the wastewater groups as defined in Section 5.4. Segregating the wastewaters to form the wastewater groups is an essential part of treatment. Flow segregation facilitates some treatment applications, but the main reason for segregation is that mixing of wastewater groups causes inefficient treatment, even total failure of treatment applications. Moreover, mixture of wastewater groups results in health hazards and economic losses. In this...

Crude Oil and Product Storage

Crude oil, intermediate, and finished products are stored in tanks of varying size to provide adequate supplies of crude oils for primary fractionation runs of economical duration to equalize process flows and provide feedstocks for intermediate processing units and to store final products prior to shipment in adjustment to market demands. Generally, operating schedules permit sufficient detention time for settling of water and suspended materials. Figure 1 Generalized flowchart for petroleum...

Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters in Municipal Plants

Municipal wastewater is unique in that a major portion of the organics are present in suspended or colloidal form. Typically, the BOD in municipal sewage consists of 50 suspended, 10 colloidal, and 40 soluble parts. By contrast, most industrial wastewater are almost 100 soluble. In an activated sludge plant treating municipal wastewater, the suspended organics are rapidly enmeshed in the flocs, the colloids are adsorbed on the flocs, and a portion of the soluble organics are absorbed. These...

Extensive Holding and Equalization of Waste

As explained earlier, waste produced from the pharmaceutical industry varies in composition and magnitude depending upon various factors, that is, raw materials, manufacturing processes, process modifications, and specific demand of seasonal medicines, and so on. Such variation in the quality and quantity of the wastewater may cause shock as well as underloading to the various treatment systems, which leads to malfunctioning or even failure of treatment processes, particularly biological...

Sodium Phosphates

In the manufacture of sodium phosphates, the removal of contaminants from the wet process acid takes place in a series of separate neutralization steps. The first step involves the removal of fluosilicates with recycled sodium phosphate liquor. The next step precipitates the minor quantities of arsenic present by adding sodium sulfide to the solution, while barium carbonate is added to remove the excess sulfate. The partially neutralized acid still contains iron and aluminum phosphates, and...

High Technology Bioreactor Design

There have been numerous studies to optimize the anaerobic treatment of POME using various designs of bioreactor. Laboratory-scale studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anaerobic filters (AF) and a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) in treating POME 9 . About 90 of the fed COD was effectively removed by both reactor systems. However, when the COD loading was increased, a significant reduction in terms of COD removal was recorded in the FBR system, while clogging of the filter...

Table 1 Landfill Leachate Composition From Three Different Sources

PH 4.5-9.0 5.8-7.5 5.3-8.5 COD (mg L) 500-60,000 100-62,000 150-100,000 BOD5 (mg L) 20-40,000 2-38,000 100-90,000 Sulfate (mg SO4 L) 10-1,750 60-460 10-1,200 Chloride (mg Cl L) 100-5,000 100-3,000 30-4,000 Ammonia nitrogen (mg N-NH4 L)__30-3,000 5-1,000 1-1,200 Note COD, chemical oxygen demand BOD5, five-day biochemical oxygen demand. Source Refs 4, 10-12. Table 2 Heavy Metals Concentrations in Landfill Leachate Table 2 Heavy Metals Concentrations in Landfill Leachate As landfill ages, the pH...

Imhoff Tanks

The Imhoff tank is a relatively simple anaerobic system that was used to treat wastewater before heated digesters were developed. It is still used for plants of small capacity. The system consists of a two-chamber rectangular tank, usually built partially underground (Fig. 16). Wastewater enters into the upper compartment, which acts as a settling basin while the settled solids are stabilized anaerobically at the lower part. Shortcircuiting of the wastewater can be prevented by using a baffle...

Bleach Regeneration

As previously described, bleaches contain oxidizing agents that oxidize metallic silver to silver ion. Today most photographic processing bleaches use the selective oxidizing ability of ferric iron in a chelated form, often as an iron EDTA complex 122 . Other bleaching agents include iron PDTA, ferricyanide, and persulfate. Iron PDTA has replaced iron EDTA in some bleach formulations as a more environmentally acceptable bleaching agent because it is more active therefore, less is needed to...

Color Developer Regeneration

Color developer solutions become exhausted through the oxidation of developing agent and the increased concentration of reaction products, which may significantly reduce the activity of the solution. In most cases, the limiting factor for reuse is the increased halide concentration. Therefore, to reuse color developers, the halide concentrations must be controlled. Two approaches are employed to control the halide level. First, the undesirable reaction products such as halides can be removed. A...

Liquid Soap H

In the making of liquid soap, neat soap (often the potassium soap of fatty acids) is blended in a mixing tank with other ingredients such as alcohols or glycols to produce a finished product, or the pine oil and kerosene for a product with greater solvency and versatility (Fig. 8). The final blended product may be, and often is, filtered to achieve a sparkling clarity before being drummed. In making liquid soap, water is used to wash out the filter press and other equipment. According to...

Coal Pile Runoff

No reliable data have been gathered for the wastewater characteristics of coal pile runoff. Example 3 (Section 32.6.3) presents the technical information on the characteristics of a combined wastewater (consisting of coal pile runoff, regeneration wastewater, and fly ash), and its treated effluent. Table 6 Summary of Priority Pollutants in the Steam Electric Industry Metal Cleaning Wastes Ammoniated EDTA Solutions Ammonia Sodium Bromide Solutions Table 6 Summary of Priority Pollutants in the...

Vessels Containers and Wrapping Wastes

Another type of waste relating to food industries is the waste originating from containers, vessels, bottles, and wrapping materials. These wastes occupy a large portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). Among these wastes, plastic wastes in particular should be focused on from an environmental standpoint. One company, FP Co. Ltd., has developed a good recycling system for polystylene paper (PSP) trays in Japan. They employ a whole network of transportation systems from factories through markets...

Oxygen Deficiency Hazards

The oxygen content of normal air at sea level is approximately 21 . Physiological effects of oxygen deficiency in humans are readily apparent when the oxygen concentration in the air decreases to 16 . These effects include impaired attention, judgment, and coordination, and increased breathing and heart rate. Oxygen concentrations lower than 16 can result in nausea and vomiting, brain damage, heat damage, unconsciousness, and death. To take into account individual physiological responses and...

Table 1 Manure Characteristics of Dairy Cattle

Weight of dairy cattle (lbs)a 150 250 500 1000 1400 Daily production (lbs day) Daily production (gallons day) Total solids (lbs day) Volatile solids (lbs day) BOD5 (lbs day) Nitrogen (lbs day) Phosphate (lbs day) Potash (lbs day)_ 0.023 0.045 0.082 0.166 0.048 0.084 0.169 0.325 115 13.9 14.6 1.7 2.38 0.57 0.23 0.45 flowing onto an animal feeding operation, and other materials polluted by livestock 1,35 . Livestock and poultry wastes can be categorized as solid, semisolid, and liquid wastes....

Phosphate Manufacturing

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible for most subcategories of the phosphate manufacturing industry. Important control measures include stringent inprocess abatement, good housekeeping practices, containment provisions, and segregation practices 8 . In the phosphorus chemicals industry (subcategories A, B, and C in Table 3), plant effluent can be segregated into noncontact cooling water, process water, and auxiliary streams comprising ion-exchange...

Wastewater

Wastewater in bakeries is primarily generated from cleaning operations including equipment cleaning and floor washing. It can be characterized as high loading, fluctuating flow and contains rich oil and grease. Flour, sugar, oil, grease, and yeast are the major components in the waste. The ratio of water consumed to products is about 10 in common food industry, much higher than that of 5 in the chemical industry and 2 in the paper and textiles industry 3,6 . Normally, half of the water is used...

Figure 10 Sources for colored wastes from textile dyeing operations from

On the basis of Eqs (5) and (6), the part of dyestuff released as hydrolyzed dye can be estimated using Eq. (7). When a color depth of 5 (50 g dyestuff per 1 kg of goods) is used as basis for a calculation and a dyestuff fixation of 80 is observed at a liquor ratio of 1 10 (10 L of dyebath for 1 kg of goods) then a mass of 40 g dyestuff is fixed on the textile while 10 g remain in the dyebath as hydrolyzed dye. The dyestuff concentration cD in the used bath is then 1 g L ( 0.05, LR 10, cD 1 g...

Zero Emission in Beer Breweries

Waste recycling systems in beer breweries are very complete. Kirin Beer Co. Ltd. has achieved zero-emission for its industrial wastes since 1998. Table 22 shows the amounts for each of the wastes and their uses 46 . Moreover, the emission factor of wastes has itself also decreased from 0.205 kg L in 1996 to 0.140 kg L in 2001. Wastewater is treated by a UASB reactor and activated sludge method in 10 out of 12 factories in this company. In fact, 18,860x103 m3 of wastewater generate 4800 tons of...

Table 3 Comparison of Various Pulping Processes

Na2CO3 efficient recovery of chemicals brown pulp, easily bleached, lower strength than Kraft pulp 47-50 for bleachable pulps, 43-45 after bleaching bleached Kraft pulp, cartons, containers, corrugated board TMP, thermomechanical pump CTMP, chemi-thermomechanical pump NSSC, neutral sulfite semichemical pulp. Source Refs 3, 10, and 12. TMP, thermomechanical pump CTMP, chemi-thermomechanical pump NSSC, neutral sulfite semichemical pulp. Source Refs 3, 10, and 12. Nonconventional pulping methods...

Emerging Phosphorus Removal Technologies

More recent research on treatment or recovery of phosphates and phosphorus from wastewater can be found from the literature 57,58,60-69,73 . The use of combined biological and physicochemical treatment processes for phosphorus removal was originally conceived by Beer and Wang at Coxsackie Sewage Treatment Plant, NY 58 , and by Krofta and Wang at the Lenox Institute of Water Technology, MA 65,66 . They successfully used ferric chloride, lime, and alum for precipitation of phosphate from the...

Treatment of Metal Finishing Wastes

Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. In the metal finishing industry, metals or alloys are used as starting materials to manufacture a wide range of metal components. The metal finishing and metal fabricating industry is identified as SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) code 34. SIC code 34 is further divided into nine classes SIC 341 to SCI 349. These subclasses indicate product groups 1 . Metal finishing involves the forming...

Chemical Recovery Cartridge Metallic Replacement method

In this method, a metal (usually iron) in a chemical recovery cartridge (CRC) reacts with the silver thiosulfate in the spent fixer and goes into solution. The less active metal (silver) settles out as a solid. To bring the silver into contact with the iron, the spent fixer is passed through the CRC container, which is filled with steel wool. The steel wool provides the source of iron to replace the silver. The main advantages of this CRC method are the very low initial cost (cartridges cost...

Table 1 Chemical Properties of Palm Oil Mill Effluent POME

BOD (mg L) COD (mg L) Oil and grease (mg L) Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg L) 4.2 3.4-5.2 25,000 10,250-43,750 50,00015,000-100,000 6000 150-18,000 35 4-80 Total nitrogen (mg L) Suspended solid (mg L) Total solid (mg L) 750 180-1400 18,000 5000-54000 40,000 11,500-78,000 process should be optimized. Three biological processes are currently employed by the industry as a series of anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerobic treatments. However, the major reduction of POME polluting strength up to 95...

Application of Biotechnology inon the Sites of Postaccidental Wastes

This direction of environmental biotechnology is known as soil bioremediation. There are many options in the process design described in the literature 7,28,29 . The main options tested in the field are as follows Engineered in situ bioremediation (in-place treatment of a contaminated site) Engineered onsite bioremediation (the treatment of a percolating liquid or eliminated gas in reactors placed on the surface of the contaminated site). The reactors used for this treatment are suspended...

Table 4 Components of Kraft Black Liquor and Characteristics of Kraft Evaporator Condensate

_Kraft black liquor characteristics_ Component__Weight , dry solids basis_ _Kraft liquor evaporator condensate characteristics_ Major organic component Methanol, 60-90 of COD Anaerobic degradability 80-90 of COD Compounds that inhibit anaerobic Reduced sulfur, resin acids, fatty acids, volatile COD, chemical oxygen demand. Source Refs 3 and 6. _Kraft liquor evaporator condensate characteristics_ Major organic component Methanol, 60-90 of COD Anaerobic degradability 80-90 of COD Compounds that...

Fat Splitting B

The manufacture of fatty acid from fat is called fat splitting (B), and the process flow diagram is shown in Fig. 3. Washouts from the storage, transfer, and pretreatment stages are the same as those for process (A). Process condensate and barometric condensate from fat splitting will be contaminated with fatty acids and glycerine streams, which are settled and skimmed to recover Figure 2 Soap manufacture by batch kettle (A) (from Ref. 13). Figure 2 Soap manufacture by batch kettle (A) (from...

Electroless Plating

Electroless plating, as the name implies, does not utilize an electric current for plating. Electroless plating can be carried out as autocatalytic and immersion plating. Autocatalytic plating is the process in which the metal ion in the solution is forced to convert into the metallic state and deposit onto the object to be plated by the use of reducing agents. The process is started by the catalytic action of the surface being plated. For this purpose the surface is pretreated, usually by the...

Table 7 Characteristics of an Acid Waste Stream of a Synthetic Drug Plant at Hyderabad [13

BOD5 at 20 C (mg L) COD (mg L) BOD COD ratio Total solids (mg L) Total volatile solids (mg L) Suspended solids Total nitrogen (mg L) Total phosphorus (mg L) Total acidity as CaCO3 Chlorides as Cl- (mg L) Sulfate as SO42- (mg L) 435 0.4-0.65 2,920-3,260 7,190-9,674 0.34-0.41 18,650-23,880 15,767-20,891 Traces 352 9.4 BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand. Table 8 Characteristics of Combined Wastewatera of a Synthetic Drug Plant at Hyderabad 15 Table 8 Characteristics of...

Impact of Biotreatment on Silver

In addition to reducing the oxygen demand of photographic processing effluent, biological treatment also affects silver speciation. Depending on the size of the photoprocessing operation and complexity (and efficiency) of the silver recovery equipment, silver concentrations of between 0.5 and 10.0 mg L may be found in photoprocessing effluents. The silver present in these effluents is in the form of a silver thiosulfate complex, which as previously noted is approximately 17,500 times less toxic...

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are...

Manufacture and Formulation

This industry produces liquid and solid cleaning agents for domestic and industrial use, including laundry, dishwashing, bar soaps, specialty cleaners, and industrial cleaning products. It can be broadly divided (Fig. 1) into two categories (a) soap manufacture that is based on the processing of natural fat and (b) detergent manufacture that is based on the processing of Figure 1 Flow diagram of soap and detergent manufacture (from Ref. 13). Figure 1 Flow diagram of soap and detergent...

Phosphate Industry Waste Disposal

In one of the earliest extensive studies and reports on the disposal of wastes from the phosphate mining and processing industry in Florida, Specht 29 reviewed the waste treatment and disposal practices in the various phases of phosphate and phosphorus manufacturing. Regarding waste disposal from mining and beneficiation operations, he reported the use of specially constructed settling areas for the clay and quartz sand separated in the washing and flotation processes and also for the...

Pollution Prevention Practice

As mentioned earlier, plating baths contain high concentrations of specific metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, as well as cyanide and other toxic compounds. The baths are not dumped unless impurities build up or solution constituents are lost by dragout. An exhausted plating bath is highly concentrated and needs extensive treatment. The source reduction methods for spent plating baths include monitoring bath composition chemistry chemical addition to reduce dragout removal...

Table 12 Parameters of Significance for the Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater [3

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TOC, total organic carbon. BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TOC, total organic carbon. Production processes used in the pharmaceutical fine chemical, cosmetic, textile, rubber, and other industries result in wastewaters containing significant levels of aliphatic solvents. It has been reported that of the 1000 tons per year of EC-defined toxic wastes generated in Ireland, organic solvents contribute 66 of the...

Case Studies

A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the integrated wet air oxidation-aerobic biodegradation process (Fig. 14) in treating olive-processing wastewater in the province of Badajoz, Spain 19 . The most representative parameters are the COD and BOD5, with values of 24.45 and 14.8 g O2 L respectively, and phenolic content 833 mg phenol L. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion in the range 3060 (6 hours of treatment) was achieved by WAO using relatively mild conditions...

Table 8 Range of Concentrations of Contaminants in Boiler Blowdown Waste

Boiler blowdown contaminant Concentration (mg L) Boiler blowdown contaminant Concentration (mg L) TDS, total dissolved solids. Source Ref. 26. TDS, total dissolved solids. Source Ref. 26. a once-through process cooling stream generally discharge from 1000 to over 10,000 m3 hour wastewater effluents that are primarily cooling water. 9.3 IMPACTS OF PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY POLLUTION The possibility of the phosphate industry adversely affecting streams did not arise until 1927, when the flotation...

Adsorption of Anionic Surfactant by Rubber

Removal of anionic surfactants has been studied or reported by many investigators 96101 . It has been reported 101 that the efficiency of rubber granules, a low-cost adsorbent material, is efficient for the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is a representative member of anionic surfactants (AS). Previous studies on the absorption of AS on various adsorbents such as alumina and activated carbon showed 80-90 removals, while the sodium form of type A Zeolite did not have a good...

Ion Exchange and Exclusion

The ion-exchange process has been used effectively in the field of waste disposal. The use of continuous ion exchange and resin regeneration systems has further improved the economic feasibility of the applications over the fixed-bed systems. One of the reported 1 special Figure 21 Composite flowsheet of waste treatment in soap and detergent industry (from Ref. 13). Figure 21 Composite flowsheet of waste treatment in soap and detergent industry (from Ref. 13). applications of the ion-exchange...

G124 Anaerobic Aerobic Sequential Bioremediation System

An anaerobic aerobic sequential bioremediation system (Fig. 7) for removal of PCE is now introduced. It has been demonstrated that sequential anaerobic aerobic biodegradation of PCE is feasible if the proper conditions can be established. The anaerobic process can potentially completely dechlorinate PCE. However, conversion of vinyl chloride (VC) to ethylene is the slowest step in this process. Of the chlorinated ethenes, VC is the most amenable to treatment by aerobic methanotrophic processes....

Aerobic Systems

Biodegradable Tire Landfill Treatment

Aerobic decomposition of pollutants in leachate is based on processes with suspended growth microorganisms-activated sludge and or attached growth microorganisms-with different types of fixed film biological reactors. Activated sludge is one of the basic methods applied for municipal landfill leachate treatment. This process is used for biochemical oxidation of biodegradable organic compounds, but mainly for the biological removal of nitrogen 20,42-46 . Efficiency of organic compounds removal...

Ex Situ And In Situ Vitrification

Vitrification is a process of melting contaminated soil, buried hazardous wastes, or toxic sludges at a temperature as high as 1600-2000 C, in an electric furnace or in place at a contaminated site, to render the materials nonhazardous. The final nonhazardous product is a glassy and or crystalline solid matrix that is resistant to leaching and more durable than natural granite or marble. If the vitrification process is carried out in an electric furnace, it is called ex situ vitrification...

Colgate Palmolive Plant

Possibly the most representative treatment facility that handles wastewaters from the production of soaps, detergents, glycerines, and personal care products is Colgate-Palmolive Company's plant at Jeffersonville, IN 3 . The production wastes had received treatment since 1968 21 in a completely mixed activated sludge plant with a 0.6 MGD design flow and consisting of a 0.5 MG mixed equalization and storage basin, aeration basin, and final clarifier. The treated effluent was discharged to the...

Onsite Vs Offsite Treatment

Depending on the regulatory requirements governing the need for treatment of contaminated stormwater, along with the possible availability of offsite treatment, a decision as to whether to provide onsite or offsite treatment will need to be made. Therefore, prior to proceeding, an industry should (a) investigate whether or not offsite treatment is available, (b) identify if offsite facilities provide the level of treatment required, (c) ascertain tipping fees or costs to be incurred, and (d)...

Influence of Pressure and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Raw Leachate on Reverse Osmosis

In spite of much experimental work reported at laboratory and industrial scales, a systematic investigation of the performance of leachate disposal by a reverse osmosis unit under various sets of operating conditions is of great economical importance, especially using a wide range of operating pressures and of COD level of the leachate. The effect of operating pressure on the permeate flux rate through the membrane has been investigated for values of COD within the range 0-1749 mg L 95 . With a...

Waste Treatment Processes

An integrated waste treatment system usually consists of three phases primary treatment, secondary treatment, and advanced treatment. Primary treatment involves the removal of suspended and settleable solids by screening, flotation, and sedimentation. Secondary treatment involves the biological decomposition of the organic matter, largely dissolved, that remains in the flow stream after treatment by primary processes. Biological treatment can be accomplished by mechanical processes or by...

Activated Carbon Adsorption

Flow Diagram Adsorption

Activated carbon adsorption is a well-established process for adsorption of organics in wastewater, water, and air streams. Granular activated carbon (GAC) packed in a filter bed or of powdered activated carbon (PAC) added to clarifiers or aeration basins is used for wastewater treatment. In the pesticide industry, GAC is much more widely used than PAC. Figure 10 shows the process flow diagram of a GAC system with two columns in series, which is common in the pesticide industry 11 . Activated...

Fixer and Bleach Fix Reuse

The primary factors limiting the direct recycling of fixers and bleach-fixes are the buildup of silver, halide ions, sulfate, and, in some cases, oxidized developer products that can stain the product. However, with appropriate chemical treatment most fixers or bleach-fixes can be reused, although the degree of reuse possible varies from solution to solution. When silver is recovered from the fixer or bleach-fix by plating at the cathode, the sodium sulfite or other preservative is consumed at...

Pretreatment Screening

Typically, the screen is the first device encountered by wastewater entering the treatment plant. Screening is often used to remove large pieces of waste so that the water can be reused within the processing plant. Three types of screens are commonly used stationary gravity screens, rotary screens, and vibratory screens. These units are similar to screens used in dewatering products during processing. Coarse solids are normally removed in a fine screen with a mesh size of 1 mm. The simplest...

Ex Situ Biological Treatment

In ex situ biological treatment, wastewater, soil, and sediment are first moved to treatment stations and treated biologically. For soil, sediment, bedrock, and sludge, biopiles, composting, landfarming, slurry phase biological treatment can be used natural subsurface and surface waters can be remediated by bioreactors and constructed wetlands. A series of bioreactors have been widely studied and applied 12 . If based on oxygen environments, there are aerobic and anaerobic treatments if based...

Agro Industries in Tropical Countries

Cassava is a key food product in many tropical countries. In 1997, 165 million tons were produced worldwide for food and feed. Cassava chips, pellet, and starch are major exports for Thailand, which produces 18 million tons annually. Eight million tons were exported annually in 1992-94 to Europe, mainly for the feedstuff, but has decreased since then 26 . The processes for starch are peeling, washing, grating, starch extraction, settling, drying, milling, and sieving. Solid waste from the...

OL Yvr 100 mg BODg VSS x g VSSL

A municipal conventional activated sludge treatment plant is planning to receive the potato processing wastewater given in design example 2, without pretreatment (in an aerobic lagoon). Determine what changes need to be made in the processing conditions of the plant to avoid filamentous bulking. Assume T 20 C, d 0.55, 6 0.15 day, X 0.6, Nb 1.5 lb O2 (hp.hour). For the potato processing wastewater (example 2) BOD concentration 2400 mg L, Flow 1150 gal tonx150 t day 172,500 gal...

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) estimates the degree of contamination by measuring the oxygen required for oxidation of organic matter by aerobic metabolism of the microbial flora. In seafood-processing wastewaters, this oxygen demand originates mainly from two sources. One is the carbonaceous compounds that are used as substrate by the aerobic microorganisms the other source is the nitrogen-containing compounds that are normally present in seafood-processing wastewaters, such as proteins,...

In Situ Stream or Hot Air Heated Mixing Augers

This system is applied to contaminated soil directly in the field by the use of large, vertical stream or air-heated soil mixing augers common to the construction industry for boring holes. Steam or hot air is injected into the contaminated soil, in place, through the auger as a hole is bored. The VOCs, SVOCs, and inorganic volatile compounds are collected in a hood and treated in a condensation or afterburner gas treatment system. All the in situ or ex situ thermal desorption systems described...

Bakery Industry Waste Sources

The bakery industry is one of the largest water users in Europe and the United States. The daily water consumption in the bakery industry ranges from 10,000 to 300,000 gal day. More than half of the water is discharged as wastewater. Facing increasing stringent wastewater discharge regulations and cost of pretreatment, more bakery manufacturers have turned to water conservation, clean technology, and pollution prevention in their production processes. As shown in Figure 1, almost every...

Table 3 Soap and Detergent Categorization Source

Soap manufacture Batch kettle and continuous A Fatty acid manufacture by fat splitting B Soap from fatty acid neutralization C Glycerine recovery Glycerine concentration D Glycerine distillation E Soap flakes and powders F Bar soaps G Liquid soap H Detergent manufacture Oleum sulfonation and sulfation (batch and continuous) I Air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation (batch and continuous) J SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation K Sulfamic acid sulfation L Chlorosulfonic acid sulfation M Neutralization of...

Sludge Disposal

Different types of sludge arise from the treatment of dairy wastewaters. These include (a) sludge produced during primary sedimentation of raw effluents (the amounts of which are usually low) (b) sludge produced during the precipitation of suspended solids after chemical treatment of raw wastewaters (c) stabilized sludge resulting from the biological treatment processes, which can be either aerobic or anaerobic and (d) sludge generated during tertiary treatment of waste-water for final...

Parallel and Corrugated Plate Separators

Parallel and corrugated plate separators are improved types of oil-water separators with tilted plates installed at an angle of 45 . This increases the collection area many times while decreasing the overall size of the unit accordingly. As the water flows through the separator, the oil droplets coalesce on the underside of the plates and travel upward to where the oil is collected. Table 16 Typical Efficiencies of Oil Separation Units Table 16 Typical Efficiencies of Oil Separation Units Oil...

Dissolved Air Flotation DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is usually implemented by pumping compressed air bubbles to remove fine SS and FOG in the bakery wastewater. The wastewater is first stored in an air pressured, closed tank. Through the pressure-reduction valves, it enters the flotation tank. Owing to the sudden reduction in pressure, air bubbles form and rise to the surface in the tank. The SS and FOG adhere to the fine air bubbles and are carried upwards. Dosages of coagulant and control of pH are important in...

Open Digester and Ponding Systems

This system is a combination of an open digester tank and a series of ponding systems (Fig. 7). The anaerobic digestion is carried out in the digester, then in the facultative anaerobic and algae ponds. It has been shown that by using an open digester, a better reduction of BOD can be achieved in a shorter time. Digesters are constructed of mild steel at various volumetric capacities ranging from 600 up to 3600 m3. The treatment of treated POME from the digester Figure 4 A series of ponds for...

Mining and Phosphate Rock Processing

Mechanized open-cut mining is used to first strip off the overburden and then to excavate in strips the exposed phosphate rock bed matrix. In the Rusaifa area of Jordan, the stripping ratio of overburden to phosphate rock is about 7 1 by wt. 28 . Following crushing and screening of the mined rocks in which the dust (less than 200 mesh) is rejected, they go through beneficiation processing. The unit processes involved in this wet treatment of the crushed rocks for the purpose of removing the mud...

Resin Adsorption

Adsorption by synthetic polymeric resins is an effective means for removing and recovering specific chemical compounds from wastewater. The operation is similar to that of GAC adsorption. Polymeric adsorption can remove phenols, amines, caprolactam, benzene, chlorobenzenes, and chlorinated pesticides 11 . The adsorption capacity depends on the type and concentration of specific organics in the wastewater as well as pH, temperature, viscosity, polarity, surface tension, and background...

Table 2 Chemical Characteristics of Different Dairy Plant Wastewaters

BOD, biological oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TS, total solids TSS, total suspended solids FOG, fats, oil and grease. Table 3 Concentrations of Selected Elements in Different Dairy Wastewaters BOD, biological oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand TS, total solids TSS, total suspended solids FOG, fats, oil and grease. Table 3 Concentrations of Selected Elements in Different Dairy Wastewaters Total P PO4-P TKN NH4-N Na+ K+ Ca27 Mg27 Industry_(mg L) (mg L) (mg L) (mg L) (mg L) (mg...

Table 11 Treatment of Meat Industry Wastewaters by High Rate Biological Filtration

Medium (lb 103galday) (kg m3 day) BOD removal ( ) organic loading rates for secondary treatment are 2-4 gal ft2 day (0.08-0.16 m3 m2 day) and 2.0-3.5 lb total BOD 103 ft2day (0.01-0.017 kg BOD m2 day) respectively, with effluent BOD concentrations ranging from 15 to 30 mg L. For secondary treatment combined with nitrification, typical hydraulic and organic loading rate design values are 0.75-2 gal ft2 day and 1.5 to 3.0 lb total BOD 103 ft2day respectively (0.03-0.08 m3 m2 day and 0.007-0.014...

Glycerine Recovery Process D E

A process flow diagram for the glycerine recovery process uses the glycerine byproducts from kettle boiling (A) and fat splitting (B). The process consists of three steps (Fig. 5) (a) pretreatment to remove impurities, (b) concentration of glycerine by evaporation, and (c) distillation to a finished product of 98 purity. There are three wastewaters of consequence from this process two barometric condensates, one from evaporation and one from distillation, plus the glycerine foots or still...

Defluorinated Phosphate Rock

The primary raw material for the defluorination process is fluorapatite phosphate rock. Other raw materials used in much smaller amounts, but critical to the process, are sodium-containing reagents, wet process phosphoric acid, and silica. These are fed into either a rotary kiln or a fluidized bed reactor that requires a modular and predried charge. Reaction temperatures are maintained in the 1205-1366 C range, whereas the retention time varies from 30 to 90 min. From the kiln or fluidized bed...

Low Cost Primitive Methods

These methods are mostly applied in the developing countries producing olive, due to their simplicity and low costs. Of these methods, the most important are Drainage of olive oil mill liquid waste in some types of soils, with rates up to 50 m3 ha- year (in the case of traditional mills) and up to 80 m3 ha-year (in the case of decanting-based methods), or to apply the olive oil mill liquid wastes to the irrigation water for a rate of less than 3 . These processes are risky because they decrease...

Ultraviolet Radiation And Oxidation For Groundwater Decontamination

This ultraviolet (UV) radiation and oxidation process uses UV radiation, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide to destroy toxic organic compounds, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons, in contaminated groundwater. The process oxidizes compounds that are toxic or refractory (resistant to biological oxidation) to parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) levels. The UV radiation and oxidation system (Fig. 11) consists of a treatment tank module, an air compressor and ozone generator module, and...

Table 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Treatments of Hazardous Wastes

Physical treatment (sedimentation, volatilization, fixation, evaporation, heat treatment, radiation, etc.) Chemical treatment (oxidation, incineration, reduction, immobilization, chelating, transformation) Physico-chemical treatment (adsorption, absorption) Biotechnological aerobic treatment (oxidation, transformation, degradation) Biotechnological anaerobic treatment (reduction, degradation) Required time is from some minutes to some hours, Required time is from some minutes to some hours....

Factors Affecting Anaerobic Process Operation

The anaerobic process functions effectively over two temperature ranges the mesophilic range of 85-100 F (29-38 C) and the thermophilic range of 120-135 F (49-57 C). Although the rates of reaction are much greater in the thermophilic range, the maintenance of higher temperatures is usually not economically justifiable. Methane organisms function over a pH range of 6.6-7.6 with an optimum near pH 7.0. When the rate of acid formation exceeds the rate of breakdown to methane, a process unbalance...

Treatment of Bone and Meat Powder Suspicious of BSE

The Japanese government has prohibited the import of bone powder from England since March 1996 and also from EU countries since January 2001 to prevent the introduction of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), known as mad cow disease. After three infected cows were reported in Japan, bone and meat powder (BMP) rendered in domestic bone-boiling factories has been prohibited as use as feedstuff and also as fertilizer for a certain period. Although BMP is a good fertilizer, especially for fruit...

Diagrams Related To Industrial Policies

Bakery Production

The bakery industry is one of the world's major food industries and varies widely in terms of production scale and process. Traditionally, bakery products may be categorized as bread and bread roll products, pastry products (e.g., pies and pasties), and specialty products (e.g., cake, biscuits, donuts, and specialty breads). In March 2003, there were more than 7000 bakery operations in the United States (Table 1) with more than 220,000 employees. More than 50 of bakery businesses are small,...

Subsurface Discharge

Disposal of brine in subsurface wells is probably the most widely used control method, especially in the western and southern oil and gas producing states 23 . For this to be an effective disposal option, two conditions must be met the natural aquifer must be naturally saline and must not leak to freshwater aquifers, and the reinjection pressure must not exceed the fracture pressure of the formation 9 . Produced water is usually pretreated to prevent equipment from being corroded and to prevent...

Arsenic Removal from Combined Runoff and Wastewater

The feasibility of removing hazardous soluble arsenic (+5) and other conventional pollutants from combined storm runoff and process wastewater by oil water separation, dissolved air flotation (DAF), filtration, and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption was fully demonstrated for an oil-blending company in New Jersey 44,45,52 . The oil separated from the raw combined wastewater by the American Petroleum Institute (API) oil water separators was Figure 18 Optimum process configuration (from...

Potato Peels

Approximately two million tons per year of potato peels are produced from potato processing as byproducts 65 . Potato peels provide a good source of dietary fiber, particularly when processed by a lye-peeling technique 66 . Potato peels contain 40 g dietary fiber 100 g dry matter, depending on the variety of potato processed and the method of peeling 67 . Application of extruded and unextruded potato peels as a source of dietary fiber in baked goods has been evaluated 1 . Acceptable muffins...

Treatment Of Waste Gas Emissions From Pulp And Paper Industries

A spectrum of gaseous phase pollutants is emitted from pulp and paper mills, which include VOCs, total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS), NOx, and SOx. Air pollution control, particularly nuisance odor abatement, has gained importance in recent years. VOCs formed during pulping, bleaching, and liquor evaporation are conventionally treated by physico-chemical methods such as adsorption to activated coal filters, absorption, thermal oxidation (incineration), catalytic oxidation, and condensation 109...

With the use of ultrafiltration From Refs 78

Of biological and physicochemical processes and are very effective and economical in the early stage of landfill. However, as landfill ages, the characteristics of landfill leachate change to lower biodegradable organic matters and highly concentrated nitrogenous compounds. In this case, biological oxidation of organic compounds and denitrification of nitrogenous compounds barely occurs. To solve these problems, it is necessary to use the integrated membrane process, that is, MBR, to enhance...

Reasons for Bioenhancement of the Treatment

Addition of microorganisms (inoculum) to start up or to accelerate the biotreatment process is a reasonable strategy under the following conditions 1. If microorganisms that are necessary for hazardous waste treatment are absent or their concentration is low in the waste 2. If the rate of bioremediation performed by indigenous microorganisms is not sufficient to achieve the treatment goal within the prescribed duration 3. If the acclimation period is too long 4. To direct the biodegradation...