Pit and Solids Encapsulation

Pit encapsulation means constructing a reserve pit to contain the fluids and seal it at the end of drilling. Normal procedures involve slurry trenching for sidewalls, plowing in organic-treated bentonite for a bottom base, placing a synthetic liner in this excavation, and covering the liner with additional soil containing some bentonite for puncture protection. The pit is then filled with waste drilling fluid. At well completion, the fluid is allowed to evaporate. When the fluid is...

Anaerobicaerobic Fixed Film Biological System For Groundwater Decontamination

Another ex situ bioremediation process introduced here is an anaerobic-aerobic fixed film biological groundwater treatment system (Fig. 9) commercially known as the immobilized cell bioreactor biotreatment system. It is designed to remove organic contaminants (including nitrogen-containing compounds and toxic chlorinated solvents) from contaminated ground-water, and other heavily polluted aqueous streams. This groundwater decontamination system offers improved treatment efficiency by using (a)...

Crude Oil Fractionation

Fractionation is the basic refining process for separating crude petroleum into intermediate fractions of specified boiling point ranges. The various subprocesses include prefractionation and atmospheric fractionation, vacuum fractionation, and three-stage crude distillation. Figure 2 Crude desalting (electrostatic desalting). A high-voltage electrostatic field acts to agglomerate dispersed oil droplets for water-oil separation after water wash desalting. (From Ref. 5.)

Semichemical Pulp

Wood chips are processed in mild chemical liquor and subjected to mechanical refining using disc refiners. Semichemical pulping liquors have variable composition ranging from sodium hydroxide alone, alkaline sulfite (sodium sulfite+sodium carbonate), mixtures of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, to Kraft green or white liquors 3 . Sodium sulfite sodium carbonate liquor is most commonly used and the pulp product obtained thereafter is referred to as neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulp.

SCS TR55 Method

As mentioned previously, the Soil Conservation Service 16 report on Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds, known as Technical Release No. 55, provides a simple rainfall runoff method for peak flow estimates based on the 24 hour net rain depth and the time of concentration t0. This is a graphical approach assuming homogeneous watersheds where the land use and soil type are represented by a single parameter, the runoff curve number (CN). The SCS peak discharge graph shown in Fig. 5 16 is applied...

Batch vs Online Treatment Capability

The variability of stormwater flow due to varying storm intensity (in. hour) and magnitude (total cumulative inches of precipitation) makes the sizing of treatment units a more complicated matter as compared to sizing such units for sanitary wastewater flows. One consideration in designing a system is with respect to handling the contaminated stormwater (CSW) on a batch or online basis. Batch treatment is a method of treating contaminated water in treatment units on a cyclic operational basis....

Spent Caustics Treatment

Caustics are widely used in petroleum refineries. Typical uses are to neutralize and to extract acidic materials that may occur naturally in crude oil, acidic reaction products that may be produced by various chemical treating processes, and acidic materials formed during thermal and catalytic cracking such as H2S, phenolics, and organic acids. Spent caustics may therefore contain sulfides, mercaptides, sulfates, sulfonates, phenolates, naphthenates, and other similar organic and inorganic...

Liquid Waste Treatment Methods

Disposal and management of highly contaminated wastewater constitute a serious environmental problem due to the biorecalcitrant nature of these types of effluents, in most cases. Generally, biological treatment (mainly aerobic) is the preferred option for dealing with urban and industrial effluents because of its relative cost-effectiveness and applicability for treating a wide variety of hazardous substances 19 . Nevertheless, some drawbacks may be found when applying this technology. For...

Induced Air Flotation

The induced air flotation (IAF) system operates on the same principles as a pressurized DAF unit 27 . The air, however, is typically mixed into the effluent by a rotor-disperser mechanism. The rotor, which is submerged in the liquid, forces the liquid through the disperser openings, thereby creating a negative pressure. This pulls the air downward into the liquid, causing the desired gas-liquid contact. The liquid moves through the flotation cell(s), and the float skimmings pass over the...

Table 8 Pesticides and Inert Pesticide Ingredients Contained on the RCRA Toxic Commercial Products List Rcra F List

Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hydrofluoric acid Isobutyl alcohol Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Cacodylic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chloral (hydrate) Chlorodane, technical Chlorobenzene 4-Chloro-m-cresol Chloroform Creosote (Kepone, chlordecone) 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) Dimbutyl phthalate (diallate, Avadex) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12 ) 3,5-Dichloro-N-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propyny 1) benzamide (pronamide, Kerb ) Dichloro diphenyl...

Pervaporation Process For Groundwater Decontamination

Section 20.12.6 discussed the application of a combined Sequencing Batch Reactor and Membrane Bioreactor (SBR-MBR) system to groundwater decontamination. Figure 14 shows the flow diagram of the pervaporation process (one of the membrane processes), which is a feasible process for removing VOCs from contaminated water. Permeable membranes that preferentially adsorb VOCs are used to partition VOCs from the contaminated water. The VOCs diffuse from the membrane-water interface through the membrane...

References

D& B Sales & Marketing Solutions. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Report. http www.zapdata.com , 2003. 2. Kannan, P Boie, W. Energy management practices in SME case study of a bakery in Germany. Energy Conv. Mgnt 2003, 44, 945-959. 3. Gainer, D. Pullar, S. Lake, M. Pagan, R. The Country Bake Story How a modern bakery is achieving productivity and efficiency gains through cleaner production. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Technology Challenges and Opportunities, Proceedings, Gold...

Table 3 Average Composition of Raw Wool

Wool-fat, lanolin, waxes 14 Soil, plant material (cellulose) 13 Figure 4 General scheme for the treatment of effluents from wool washing (from Refs 11-13). Figure 4 General scheme for the treatment of effluents from wool washing (from Refs 11-13). distinct washing properties for raw wool and thus a certain content of dissolved sweat is favorable to improve the washing effect. Various treatment concepts have been presented in the literature 11-13 . Besides the release of the pre-treated...

Cl3 KjO J Jog H Ct

A problem that may occur during chlorination of fisheries effluents is the formation of chloramines. These wastewaters may contain appreciable amounts of ammonia and volatile amines, which react with chlorine to give chloramines, resulting in an increased demand for chlorine to achieve a desired degree of disinfection. The proportions of these products depend on the pH and concentration of ammonia and the organic amines present. Chlorination also runs the risk of developing trihalomethanes,...

Table 2 Chemical Analysis of Different Size Fractions of Phosphate in Mining Beds at Rusaifa

First bed (average chemical Second bed (average Fourth bed (average _composition)__chemical composition) chemical composition) Size P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble Size P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble P2O5 CaCO3 Insoluble rock and nonphosphate sands and can be found at depths varying from a few feet to hundreds of feet, although the current economical mining operations seldom reach beyond 18.3 m (60ft) of depth.

Treatability of Oily Wastes from Soap Manufacture

McCarty 94 addressed the subject of the treatability of animal and vegetable oils and fats in municipal treatment systems. In general, certain reported treatment difficulties in biological systems are attributed to the presence of fats, oils, and other grease components in wastewaters. However, as opposed to mineral-type oils, animal and vegetable oils and fats such as those discharged by soap manufacture plants are readily biodegradable and generally nontoxic, although differences exist as to...

Treatment for Recycle Reuse and Zero Discharge

Petroleum refineries require a reliable supply of fresh water for steam generation, process cooling, product manufacturing, and other purposes. Because fresh water is becoming more valuable in many parts of the world, many locations have undertaken to reclaim and reuse waters for cooling, steam generation, and process use 73 . Bresnahan 74 presented two case studies that illustrate some of the technical challenges that were encountered when reusing water in refining and petrochemical complexes....

Table 4 Examples of Wastewater Types and Arisings from Slaughtering and Processing

Manure-free, low grease water (slaughterhouse) Manure-free, low grease water (cutting rooms, processing and packing) Clear water Holding pens, gut room washwaters, scald tanks, dehairing and hair washing, hide preparation, bleed area cleanup, laundry, casing preparation, catch basins Drainage and washwater from slaughter floor area (except bleeding and dehairing), carcass washers, rendering operations Washwater from nonproduction areas, finished product chill showers, coolers and freezers,...

Solution

(A) The first step is to estimate the values of X M against the equilibrium SCOD concentration. The SCOD removal attributed to PAC can be calculated by subtracting the effluent SCOD in the PAC-fed reactor from the effluent SCOD of the control reactor. The estimated values of X and X M are given in the following table. (B) The second step is to plot the log (X M) values against the various values of the log Ce as shown in Figure 7. By taking the log of both sides of the Freundlich equation we...

Other Technologies

Many other technologies exist for metal removal. Some methods are newly developed or still being tested. A review of these technologies is now presented. Adsorption, in the form of activated carbon or using other synthetic or natural material, is used to remove metals. Activated carbon adsorption is used as a polishing step or treatment of diluted streams for metal removal. It has been applied to hydroxide and sulfide precipitation effluents. Excess sulfide removal has also been provided by the...

Introduction

In the past two decades, the potato industry has experienced rapid growth worldwide, accompanied by a staggering increase in the amount of water produced. It is estimated that the US potato industry alone generates about 1.3x109 kg of wastes each year 1 , Large volumes of wastewater and organic wastes are generated in potato processing as result of the water used in washing, peeling, and additional processing operations. The potato industry is well known for the vast quantities of organic...

Good Housekeeping

Good housekeeping can play an important role in reducing unnecessary flows that must be treated downstream. Good housekeeping practises include minimizing waste when sampling product lines shutting off washdown hoses when not in use having a good maintenance program to keep the refinery as leakproof as possible and individually treating waste streams with special characteristics, such as spent cleaning solutions 35 . Many more things can be done here are just a few. The use of dry cleaning,...

General

The annual production of wool is approximately 1.2 million tons, which corresponds to a share of 2 of the total production of textile fibers. A simplified route for the preparation, dyeing, and finishing of woolen textiles is shown in Figure 3. Table 2 Annual Production of Textile Fibers 2001 Table 2 Annual Production of Textile Fibers 2001 Figure 3 General processing route of woolen textiles (from Ref. 3). Figure 3 General processing route of woolen textiles (from Ref. 3). Besides more general...

Galday834195 17FP 86 I Bm j

The heat available from gas production is BTUavail. (16,433.5 ft3 CH4 day) (960 BTU ft3 CH4) 15,776,160 BTU day (16,643,850 kJ day). External heat of 17,004,792- 15,776,160 1,228,832 BTU day (1,296,207 kJ day) should be supplied to maintain the Nutrients required the nitrogen required is N 0.12AXv 0.12x142.7 kg day 17.124kg day (37.673 lb day) P 0.025AXv 0.025x142.7 kg day 3.568 kg day (7.85 lb day) 1. The effluent from the anaerobic plant alone does not meet the national minimum discharge...

Floating Lids

The use of floating lids on solution storage tanks will help reduce the aerial oxidation of easily oxidized chemicals, as well as evaporation. As the solution level drops, the lid stays in contact with the solution surface to eliminate any air space. It also safeguards against airborne dust and dirt and accidental contamination by other laboratory chemicals and materials. It helps protect the quality of the processed materials, helps extend solution life, and thus lessens the dumping of stored...

Figure 16 Liquid detergent manufacture P from

Figure 17 Detergent manufacture by dry blending (Q) (from Ref. 13). Figure 17 Detergent manufacture by dry blending (Q) (from Ref. 13). Figure 18 Drum-dried detergent manufacture (R) (from Ref. 13). Figure 18 Drum-dried detergent manufacture (R) (from Ref. 13). Figure 19 Detergent bar and cake manufacture (S) (from Ref. 13). Figure 19 Detergent bar and cake manufacture (S) (from Ref. 13). viewpoint of economics, that these substances not be lost, but some losses and spills appear unavoidable...

Ferrocyanide Precipitation and Recovery

Although ferricyanide and ferrocyanide (together hexacyanoferrates) have relatively low toxicities, to the degree that they are even used as ingredients in foods 5,6 , they can be of concern because they have the capability of being degraded very slowly (often a matter of months) through photolysis, especially by strong sunlight, to form low concentrations of free cyanide 11 . Therefore, the discharge of hexacyanoferrate from a photoprocessing operation must be controlled. Any overflow...

Ex Situ Fluidized Bed Dryer

This consists of a vertically oriented reactor through which hot gases are circulated from bottom to top. The contaminated soils and hazardous wastes are fed downward into the reactor, where they are suspended by the upward flowing gas stream. The gas flow rate can be adjusted until the drag force on the soil particles from the flowing gas compensates for the force of gravity, allowing the solid particles to be suspended in a fluidized bed in the center of the dryer reactor. High heat transfer...

Current Regulations

The National Effluent Limitations Guidelines (NELG) and standards for feedlots and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Program for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) were issued on February 14, 1974, and March 18, 1976, respectively 2-6 . Under the NPDES CAFOs regulations, CAFOs were defined as facilities or Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) with 1000 or more animal units (AU). An AFO with 300 to 1000 AU was defined as a CAFO if it discharged pollutants...

Anaerobic Biological Treatment

Bakery waste contains high levels of organics, FOG, and SS, which are treated using the preferred method of anaerobic treatment processes. There are different types of anaerobic Table 8 Design and Performance of Trickling Filter Table 8 Design and Performance of Trickling Filter processes available on the market, such as CSTR, AF, UASB, AFBR, AC, and ABR. The most obvious operational parameters are high SRT, HRT, and biomass concentration. Anaerobic processes have been widely used in treatment...

Air Pollution

The air pollution is due to emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), odor, milling dust, and refrigerant agent. The VOC can be released in many operational processes including yeast fermentation, drying processes, combustion processes, waste treatment systems, and packaging manufacture. The milling dust comes from the leakage of flour powder. The refrigerant comes from the emissions leakage of the cooling or refrigeration systems. All of these can cause serious environmental problems. The...

Adsorption

Adsorption involves physical and or chemical interactions between the molecules in gas or liquid and a solid surface. It can be used to remove a pollutant from a gas or liquid stream. Gas adsorption processes, for example, can be used to separate a wide range of materials from process gas streams. Normally adsorption processes are considered for use when the pollutant is fairly dilute in the gas stream. The magnitude of adsorption force, which determines the efficiency, depends on the molecular...

Activated Sludge Systems

In an activated sludge treatment system, an acclimatized, mixed, biological growth of microorganisms (sludge) interacts with organic materials in the wastewater in the presence of excess dissolved oxygen and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The microorganisms convert the soluble organic compounds to carbon dioxide and cellular materials. Oxygen is obtained from applied air, which also maintains adequate mixing. The effluent is settled to separate Table 2 Factors Affecting the Choice of...

Primary Treatment

Sedimentation is employed for the removal of suspended solids from wastewater. After screening, wastewater still carries light organic suspended solids, some of which can be removed from the wastewater by gravity in sedimentation tanks called clarifiers. These tanks clarifiers can be round or rectangular, are usually about 3.5 m deep, and hold the wastewater for periods of two to three hours 23 . The required geometry, inlet conditions, and outlet conditions for successful...

Talc

Alkylene oxide-alchohol glycol ethers Chlorine and hypochlorite are used to control biofouling in both once-through and recirculating cooling water systems. The addition of chlorine to the water causes the formation of toxic compounds and chlorinated organics, which may be priority pollutants. Eleven plants with once-through cooling water systems were sampled as part of the verification program and the surveillance and analysis sampling efforts. Four of these plants have estuarine or salt...

Extended Aeration

To complement the previous systems, mechanical surface aerators can be introduced at the aerobic ponds (Fig. 8). This effectively reduces the BOD through aerobic processes. The aerators are normally installed at the end of the ponding system before discharge. However, this happens only where land area is a constraint and does not permit extensive wastewater treatment. Otherwise, aerators must be provided to meet DOE regulations. 16.3 PALM OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT (PORE) Following the production of...

Solution Carryover and Replenishment

If each of the above steps could be carried out under ideal, pristine conditions, there would be few unwanted reactions or byproducts and therefore waste would be minimal. Unfortunately, in actual practice this is not the case. Oxygen from the air is the primary cause of unwanted reactions. It slowly oxidizes components such as the developing agent and fixer upon long-term standing or solution agitation, both of which tend to promote dissolving of air, and during attempts to reuse solutions or...

Organic Acids

Two-stage fermentation was carried out in a study where POME was used as substrate for volatile fatty acids (VFA) production by continuous anaerobic treatment using a locally fabricated 50 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The highest VFA obtained was at 15 g L at pH 6.5, 30 C, 100 rpm, sludge to POME ratio 1 1, HRT 4 days, without sludge recycle. The highest BOD removal corresponded with the high production of organic acids. The organic acids produced from POME were then recovered and...

Oil Clarification and Purification

Palm Oil Diagram

As the name of this process implies, the extracted oil is clarified and purified to produce CPO. Dirt and other impurities are removed from the oil by centrifugation. Before the CPO is transferred to the storage tank, it is subjected to high temperatures to reduce the moisture content in the CPO. This is to control the rate of oil deterioration during storage prior to processing at the palm oil refinery. The sludge, which is the byproduct of clarification and purification procedures, is the...

Industrial Urban Areas

Industrial activities in urban areas range from workshops and light manufacturing contributing relatively small amounts of contaminants to heavy and wet industries such as steel mills, cement manufacturing, meat packing, textiles, and beer production. Their discharges of pollutants to water bodies result in minor to major problems and originate from point and nonpoint sources. The latter have been presented in detail in previous sections. The main source of nonpoint industrial pollution is air...

Trickling Filter Process

Aerobic attached-growth processes include tricking filters (biotower) and rotating biological contactors (RBC). In these processes, microorganisms are attached onto solid media and form a layer of biofilm. The organic pollutants are first adsorbed to the biofilm surface, oxidation reactions then occur, which break the complex organics into a group of simple compounds, such as water, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. In addition, the energy released from the oxidation together with the organics in...

Batch Kettle Process A

This process consists of the following operations (a) receiving and storage of raw materials, (b) fat refining and bleaching, and (c) soap boiling. The major wastewater sources, as shown in the process flow diagram (Fig. 2), are the washouts of both the storage and refining tanks, as well as from leaks and spills of fats and oils around these tanks. These streams are usually skimmed for fat recovery prior to discharge to the sewer. The fat refining and bleaching operation is carried out to...

Incineration Ash of Food Wastes

Incineration is the most popular method of disposing of combustible solid wastes in Japan, especially for MSW from restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets. For a long time incineration was perceived as a progressive method and the percentage of incineration of MSW was near 80 . Table 9 Percentages of Raw Materials of Various Kinds of Cement Portland cement Portland cement Eco-original__recent__cement Table 9 Percentages of Raw Materials of Various Kinds of Cement Portland cement Portland cement...

Anaerobic Filters

The anaerobic filter was developed by Yong and McCarty in the late 1960s. It is typically operated like a fixed-bed reactor 10 , where growth-supporting media in the anaerobic filter contacts wastewater. Anaerobic microorganisms grow on the supporting media surfaces and void spaces in the media particles. There are two variations of the anaerobic filters upflow and downflow modes. The media entraps SS present in wastewater coming from either the top (downflow filter) or the bottom (upflow...

Anaerobic Treatment Systems of Wastewater

Seasonal operation of olive oil mills is not a disadvantage for anaerobic treatment systems because anaerobic digesters can be easily restarted after several months of mill shutdown 51 . At present there are no large-scale plants. However, the anaerobic contact reactors and upflow sludge-blanket reactors have been mainly studied using several pilot tests (Fig. 7), besides other tested reactors such as anaerobic filters and fluidized-bed reactors. Sludge retention is decisive for the load...

Biosolids under anaerobic conditions from

Table 12 Characteristics of the Untreated and Biologically Treated Sulfite Mill Effluent Influent (average Aerobic filter Influent (average Aerated lagoon value) to aerobic effluent (average value) to aerated effluent (average Table 12 Characteristics of the Untreated and Biologically Treated Sulfite Mill Effluent Influent (average Aerobic filter Influent (average Aerated lagoon value) to aerobic effluent (average value) to aerated effluent (average aInfluent composed of Source Ref. 79 a...

Table 8 Comparison of the Results achieved in Two Systems

Biology+ozonation Biology+ozonation + Raw water flow rate (m3 hour) Influent COD (mg L) Effluent biology I COD (mg L) Effluent ozonation COD (mg L) Effluent biology II COD (mg L) Total COD removal (mg L) COD removal biology I+II (mg L) COD removal ozonation (mg L) Ozone mass requirement (COD removal with ozonationx2.5) (g hour) Factor (ozone mass COD removed within ozonation+biology) (kg O3 kg CODrem0ved) Figure 14 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal within biological and ozone steps of the...

Conclusions

As management of dairy wastes becomes an ever-increasing concern, treatment strategies will need to be based on state and local regulations. Because the dairy industry is a major water user and wastewater generator, it is a potential candidate for wastewater reuse. Purified wastewater can be utilized in boilers and cooling systems as well as for washing plants, and so on. Even if the purified wastewater is initially not reused, the dairy industry will still benefit directly from in-house...

Electrolytic Silver Recovery Method

In this method, the silver-bearing solution is passed between two electrodes through which a controlled direct electric current flows as shown in Figure 3. Silver plates out on the cathodes as almost pure metal. The advantages of the electrolytic method is that silver is recovered in an almost pure form, making it easier to handle and less costly to refine. With careful monitoring, it also permits fixer reuse for some processes. It also avoids the need to store and replace cartridges, as with...

Metalworking Fluid Treatment and Recovery

Metalworking fluids are costly to replace and difficult to treat. They are considered as hazardous waste due to their content and concentrated nature. Therefore, they are intended to be recycled in-house, or offsite. In either case, their effective segregation is required. Spills and contamination to wastewater should be minimized. There are several technologies used for recycling and treatment of metalworking fluids. Gravity and vacuum filtration are used to separate solids. Generally,...

Case Studies

A fluidized moving bed drier was constructed and operated 87,88 . It consisted of a cylinder 5.4 cm (inner diameter) and 40 cm height (fluidized bed zone) jointed by a conical device to an upper cylinder 19.2 cm (inner diameter) and 30 cm height (moving bed zone). The feed and removal of solids is made with the aid of J-valves especially designed for this work 89 . The system is a small pilot plant capable of treating up to 5 kg hour of solid or solid-liquid waste...

Ionizing Radiation Hazards

Radioactive materials emit one or more of three types of harmful radiation alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha radiation has limited penetration ability and is usually stopped by clothing and the outer layers of the skin. Alpha radiation poses little threat outside the body, but can be hazardous if materials that emit alpha radiation are inhaled or ingested. Beta radiation can cause harmful beta burns to the skin and damage the subsurface blood system. Beta radiation is also hazardous if materials...

Oily Wastewater Treatment

Oily wastewater treatment may be applied to both combined and segregated wastewaters. However, effective removal of characteristic parameters is most efficiently carried out in segregated waste streams. This point is of importance for priority pollutant and total toxic organics removal. Two main parameters of the oily wastewaters are oil and grease, and toxic organics. The treatment scheme for oily waste is determined by the form of the oil and organic content. Oil can be found as free,...

Drug Mixing Formulation and Preparation Plants

Drug formulating processes consist of mixing (liquids or solids), palletizing, encapsulating, and packaging. Raw materials utilized by a drug formulator and packager may include ingredients such as sugar, corn syrup, cocoa, lactose, calcium, gelatin, talc, diatomaceous, earth, alcohol, wine, glycerin, aspirin, penicillin, and so on. These plants are mainly engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals primarily of a nonprescription type, including medications for arthritis, coughs, colds, hay...

Figure 3 Flow diagram of physical refining process of crude palm oil and source of PORE

Palm oil mill effluent originates from two main processes sterilization and clarification stages, as the condensate and clarification sludge, respectively (Fig. 2). The clarification sludge shows higher level of solid residues compared to the sterilizer condensate. Both contain some level of unrecovered oils and fats. The final POME would of course include hydrocyclone washing and cleaning up processes in the mill 1 . Approximately 1-1.5 tons of water are required to process 1 ton of FFB. Based...

IPPC Directive of the European Community

In the legislation of different national governments, some limits were defined especially for wastewater and air. The activities in Europe are covered by the Council Directive 96 61 EC concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) 9 . This means that all environmental media (water, air, energy, ground) and a comprehensive description of the production have to be considered. In addition a broad harmonization of requirements for the approval of industrial plants can be reached....

Pollution Prevention in Rinsing

Rinsing (see Section 5.2 for a description of purpose and requirements) is the most extensively studied system due to its importance in pollution prevention. There are many alternatives that have been applied for pollution prevention. These alternatives can be divided into two groups alternative rinsing practices and rinse water recycling and recovery techniques. Alternative rinsing practices are shown in Table 14 4 . The applications given in the table are grouped into three categories 4 ....

Hydroxide Precipitation Method

In this method, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, or sodium aluminate can be fed to the spent fixer for precipitation of silver ions as insoluble silver hydroxide precipitates. Figure 7 indicates that the residual silver concentration in the hydroxide precipitation treated effluent can be about 1 mg L at pH 12 19 . The advantage of this method is its low cost. Its disadvantages are (a) the residual silver concentration in the treated effluent (about...

Solid Waste Treatment Methods

Many of the abovementioned treatment methods for liquid waste are suitable for the treatment of solid liquid waste arising from the two-phase decanter (alpeorujo). Some of these methods are also appropriate for the treatment of solid waste (orujo), such as recycling methods (composting and livestock feeding). In this respect, a distinction should be made between aerobic treatment systems for liquid waste (such as activated sludge, trickling filter, bioremediation) and aerobic treatment systems...

InPlant Control and Recycle

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible, particularly in the soap manufacturing subcategories where maximum flows may be 100 times the minimum. Considerably less in-plant water conservation and recycle are possible in the detergent industry, where flows per unit of product are smaller. The largest in-plant modification that can be made is the changing or replacement of the barometric condensers (subcategories A, B, D, and E). The wastewater quantity...

Table 6 Raw Wastewater Characteristics of Phosphate Fertilizer Industry Retention Ponds

Suspended solids (mg L) 800-1200 pH (unit) 1-2 Ammonia (mg L) Sulfate (mg L) Chloride (mg L) Total phosphate (mg L) Fluoride (mg L) Aluminum (mg L) Iron (mg L) 450-500 4000 58 3-5M 6-8.5M 110 85 60-100 ammonium phosphate (c) phosphates and fluoride wastes from phosphate and superphosphate production (d) acidic spillages from sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid production (e) spent solutions from the regeneration of ion-exchange units (f) phosphate, chromate, copper sulfate, and zinc wastes from...

Table 9 Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater Producing Allopathic Medicines [16

Range of concentration Average concentration BOD (mg L) COD (mg L) BOD COD ratio Suspended solids (mg L) Volatile acids (mg L) Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg L) Phenols (mg L) 6.5-7.0 1,200-1,700 2,000-3,000 0.57-0.6 300-400 50-80 50-100 65-72 various pharmaceuticals. Characteristics of the waste generated vary greatly depending upon the manufacturing process and raw materials used in the production of various medicines. These plants are mainly involved in the production of antitoxins, antisera,...

Cleaner Production In The Bakery Industry 25101 Concepts

The production of bakery products involves many operation units that may cause a variety of wastes. Most bakery industries are of small or medium size, and are often located in densely populated areas, which makes environmental problems more critical. Nevertheless, the conventional end-of-pipe treatment philosophy has its restrictions in dealing with these problems. It only addresses the result of inefficient and wasteful production processes, and should be considered only as a final option....

Alcohol

Molasses and sweet potatoes are used as the raw materials for alcohol fermentation. In Japan, to improve wastewater quality, the trend of importing crude alcohol and refining it increased in the 1970s. Here the case of alcohol production using sugar cane molasses as raw material is introduced. It is also replaced for example by acetic acid. The raw materials necessary to produce 1 kL of 95 alcohol are 3.12 tons of molasses, 1.2kg of urea, and 1.2kg of ammonium sulfate. The input of N and P is...

Biological Filters

Biological filters can also be used for treating meat industry wastes. In this process the aerobic microorganisms grow as a slime or film that is supported on the surface of the filter medium. The wastewater is applied to the surface and trickles down while air percolates upwards through the medium and supplies the oxygen required for purification (Fig. 6). The treated water along with Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment system. Figure 6 Typical biological filtration treatment...

Electrolytic Silver Recovery

Electrolysis, or more specifically electrowinning, is the most widely used and universally applicable method for silver recovery in the photoprocessing industry. An electrolytic silverrecovery cell consists of a cathode and an anode. Oxidation occurs at the anode (positive electrode) and reduction at the cathode (negative electrode). Silver deposits on the cathode during electrolysis when a direct current is passed through the silver-bearing photoprocessing solution. After sufficient silver has...

Sizing Desizing

Before weaving, the warp is covered with a layer of polymer to withstand the mechanical stress (abrasion, tension) during weaving. These polymer coatings are so-called sizes. Normally native starch, modified starch like carboxymethyl-starch (CMS), carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), polyvinylalcohols (PVA), polyacrylates, and proteins can be used. The amount of added polymer for staple yarns like Co is between 8 and 20 of the weight of the warp. As a result, in many cases the final amount of polymer...

In Situ Ion Exchange Method

With the in situ ion-exchange method (Fig. 5), dilute sulfuric acid is used to precipitate the silver in the resin beads as silver sulfide instead of removing it with regenerant. The resin that is inside the ion exchange unit is used for many cycles without a loss in capacity. When the resin eventually loses its capacity to recover silver, or when there is sufficient silver to make recovery worthwhile, it is sent to a silver refiner who incinerates it to remove the silver. This may occur after...

Electrolytic Metal Recovery

Electrolytic metal recovery, or electrowinning, is the recovery of metals from solution using the electroplating process. It has been applied in many metal-plating processes such as PCB manufacturing, and rolling mills. Cadmium, tin, copper, solder alloy, silver, and gold are among the metals commonly recovered by electrowinning 4,57 . Electrowinning cannot be applied to chromium. It is applied to the static rinse following plating by circulating the bath solution through the electrowinning...

Rubber Fabricating Operations

Rubber fabricating operations include latex-dipped, extruded, and molded goods (LDEM), and general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber (GMEF). There are an estimated 1385 rubber fabricating plants in the United States. No treatment method descriptions are currently available for this subcategory. Wastewater treatment technology consistent with equalization and sedimentation may permit compliance with BPT regulations. Table 17 Toxic Pollutant Removal Efficiency at Emulsion Crumb Rubber Plant...

Lube Oil Finishing

Solvent-refined and dewaxed lube oil stocks can be further refined by clay or acid treatment to remove color-forming and other undesirable materials. Continuous contact filtration, in which an oil-clay slurry is heated and the oil removed by vacuum filtration, is the most widely used subprocess. Acid treatment of lubricating oils produces acid-bearing wastes occurring as rinse waters, sludges, and discharges from sampling, leaks, and shutdowns. The waste streams are also high in dissolved and...

Wastewater Treatment 551 Methodology

Treatment of metal finishing wastewaters is based on the wastewater groups as defined in Section 5.4. Segregating the wastewaters to form the wastewater groups is an essential part of treatment. Flow segregation facilitates some treatment applications, but the main reason for segregation is that mixing of wastewater groups causes inefficient treatment, even total failure of treatment applications. Moreover, mixture of wastewater groups results in health hazards and economic losses. In this...

Crude Oil and Product Storage

Crude oil, intermediate, and finished products are stored in tanks of varying size to provide adequate supplies of crude oils for primary fractionation runs of economical duration to equalize process flows and provide feedstocks for intermediate processing units and to store final products prior to shipment in adjustment to market demands. Generally, operating schedules permit sufficient detention time for settling of water and suspended materials. Figure 1 Generalized flowchart for petroleum...

Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters in Municipal Plants

Municipal wastewater is unique in that a major portion of the organics are present in suspended or colloidal form. Typically, the BOD in municipal sewage consists of 50 suspended, 10 colloidal, and 40 soluble parts. By contrast, most industrial wastewater are almost 100 soluble. In an activated sludge plant treating municipal wastewater, the suspended organics are rapidly enmeshed in the flocs, the colloids are adsorbed on the flocs, and a portion of the soluble organics are absorbed. These...

Extensive Holding and Equalization of Waste

As explained earlier, waste produced from the pharmaceutical industry varies in composition and magnitude depending upon various factors, that is, raw materials, manufacturing processes, process modifications, and specific demand of seasonal medicines, and so on. Such variation in the quality and quantity of the wastewater may cause shock as well as underloading to the various treatment systems, which leads to malfunctioning or even failure of treatment processes, particularly biological...

Sodium Phosphates

In the manufacture of sodium phosphates, the removal of contaminants from the wet process acid takes place in a series of separate neutralization steps. The first step involves the removal of fluosilicates with recycled sodium phosphate liquor. The next step precipitates the minor quantities of arsenic present by adding sodium sulfide to the solution, while barium carbonate is added to remove the excess sulfate. The partially neutralized acid still contains iron and aluminum phosphates, and...

High Technology Bioreactor Design

There have been numerous studies to optimize the anaerobic treatment of POME using various designs of bioreactor. Laboratory-scale studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anaerobic filters (AF) and a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) in treating POME 9 . About 90 of the fed COD was effectively removed by both reactor systems. However, when the COD loading was increased, a significant reduction in terms of COD removal was recorded in the FBR system, while clogging of the filter...

Table 1 Landfill Leachate Composition From Three Different Sources

PH 4.5-9.0 5.8-7.5 5.3-8.5 COD (mg L) 500-60,000 100-62,000 150-100,000 BOD5 (mg L) 20-40,000 2-38,000 100-90,000 Sulfate (mg SO4 L) 10-1,750 60-460 10-1,200 Chloride (mg Cl L) 100-5,000 100-3,000 30-4,000 Ammonia nitrogen (mg N-NH4 L)__30-3,000 5-1,000 1-1,200 Note COD, chemical oxygen demand BOD5, five-day biochemical oxygen demand. Source Refs 4, 10-12. Table 2 Heavy Metals Concentrations in Landfill Leachate Table 2 Heavy Metals Concentrations in Landfill Leachate As landfill ages, the pH...

Imhoff Tanks

Imhoff Tanks

The Imhoff tank is a relatively simple anaerobic system that was used to treat wastewater before heated digesters were developed. It is still used for plants of small capacity. The system consists of a two-chamber rectangular tank, usually built partially underground (Fig. 16). Wastewater enters into the upper compartment, which acts as a settling basin while the settled solids are stabilized anaerobically at the lower part. Shortcircuiting of the wastewater can be prevented by using a baffle...

Bleach Regeneration

As previously described, bleaches contain oxidizing agents that oxidize metallic silver to silver ion. Today most photographic processing bleaches use the selective oxidizing ability of ferric iron in a chelated form, often as an iron EDTA complex 122 . Other bleaching agents include iron PDTA, ferricyanide, and persulfate. Iron PDTA has replaced iron EDTA in some bleach formulations as a more environmentally acceptable bleaching agent because it is more active therefore, less is needed to...

Color Developer Regeneration

Color developer solutions become exhausted through the oxidation of developing agent and the increased concentration of reaction products, which may significantly reduce the activity of the solution. In most cases, the limiting factor for reuse is the increased halide concentration. Therefore, to reuse color developers, the halide concentrations must be controlled. Two approaches are employed to control the halide level. First, the undesirable reaction products such as halides can be removed. A...

Liquid Soap H

In the making of liquid soap, neat soap (often the potassium soap of fatty acids) is blended in a mixing tank with other ingredients such as alcohols or glycols to produce a finished product, or the pine oil and kerosene for a product with greater solvency and versatility (Fig. 8). The final blended product may be, and often is, filtered to achieve a sparkling clarity before being drummed. In making liquid soap, water is used to wash out the filter press and other equipment. According to...

Coal Pile Runoff

No reliable data have been gathered for the wastewater characteristics of coal pile runoff. Example 3 (Section 32.6.3) presents the technical information on the characteristics of a combined wastewater (consisting of coal pile runoff, regeneration wastewater, and fly ash), and its treated effluent. Table 6 Summary of Priority Pollutants in the Steam Electric Industry Metal Cleaning Wastes Ammoniated EDTA Solutions Ammonia Sodium Bromide Solutions Table 6 Summary of Priority Pollutants in the...

Vessels Containers and Wrapping Wastes

Another type of waste relating to food industries is the waste originating from containers, vessels, bottles, and wrapping materials. These wastes occupy a large portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). Among these wastes, plastic wastes in particular should be focused on from an environmental standpoint. One company, FP Co. Ltd., has developed a good recycling system for polystylene paper (PSP) trays in Japan. They employ a whole network of transportation systems from factories through markets...

Oxygen Deficiency Hazards

The oxygen content of normal air at sea level is approximately 21 . Physiological effects of oxygen deficiency in humans are readily apparent when the oxygen concentration in the air decreases to 16 . These effects include impaired attention, judgment, and coordination, and increased breathing and heart rate. Oxygen concentrations lower than 16 can result in nausea and vomiting, brain damage, heat damage, unconsciousness, and death. To take into account individual physiological responses and...

Table 1 Manure Characteristics of Dairy Cattle

Weight of dairy cattle (lbs)a 150 250 500 1000 1400 Daily production (lbs day) Daily production (gallons day) Total solids (lbs day) Volatile solids (lbs day) BOD5 (lbs day) Nitrogen (lbs day) Phosphate (lbs day) Potash (lbs day)_ 0.023 0.045 0.082 0.166 0.048 0.084 0.169 0.325 115 13.9 14.6 1.7 2.38 0.57 0.23 0.45 flowing onto an animal feeding operation, and other materials polluted by livestock 1,35 . Livestock and poultry wastes can be categorized as solid, semisolid, and liquid wastes....

Phosphate Manufacturing

Significant in-plant control of both waste quantity and quality is possible for most subcategories of the phosphate manufacturing industry. Important control measures include stringent inprocess abatement, good housekeeping practices, containment provisions, and segregation practices 8 . In the phosphorus chemicals industry (subcategories A, B, and C in Table 3), plant effluent can be segregated into noncontact cooling water, process water, and auxiliary streams comprising ion-exchange...

Wastewater

Wastewater in bakeries is primarily generated from cleaning operations including equipment cleaning and floor washing. It can be characterized as high loading, fluctuating flow and contains rich oil and grease. Flour, sugar, oil, grease, and yeast are the major components in the waste. The ratio of water consumed to products is about 10 in common food industry, much higher than that of 5 in the chemical industry and 2 in the paper and textiles industry 3,6 . Normally, half of the water is used...

Figure 10 Sources for colored wastes from textile dyeing operations from

On the basis of Eqs (5) and (6), the part of dyestuff released as hydrolyzed dye can be estimated using Eq. (7). When a color depth of 5 (50 g dyestuff per 1 kg of goods) is used as basis for a calculation and a dyestuff fixation of 80 is observed at a liquor ratio of 1 10 (10 L of dyebath for 1 kg of goods) then a mass of 40 g dyestuff is fixed on the textile while 10 g remain in the dyebath as hydrolyzed dye. The dyestuff concentration cD in the used bath is then 1 g L ( 0.05, LR 10, cD 1 g...

Zero Emission in Beer Breweries

Waste recycling systems in beer breweries are very complete. Kirin Beer Co. Ltd. has achieved zero-emission for its industrial wastes since 1998. Table 22 shows the amounts for each of the wastes and their uses 46 . Moreover, the emission factor of wastes has itself also decreased from 0.205 kg L in 1996 to 0.140 kg L in 2001. Wastewater is treated by a UASB reactor and activated sludge method in 10 out of 12 factories in this company. In fact, 18,860x103 m3 of wastewater generate 4800 tons of...

Table 3 Comparison of Various Pulping Processes

Na2CO3 efficient recovery of chemicals brown pulp, easily bleached, lower strength than Kraft pulp 47-50 for bleachable pulps, 43-45 after bleaching bleached Kraft pulp, cartons, containers, corrugated board TMP, thermomechanical pump CTMP, chemi-thermomechanical pump NSSC, neutral sulfite semichemical pulp. Source Refs 3, 10, and 12. TMP, thermomechanical pump CTMP, chemi-thermomechanical pump NSSC, neutral sulfite semichemical pulp. Source Refs 3, 10, and 12. Nonconventional pulping methods...

Emerging Phosphorus Removal Technologies

More recent research on treatment or recovery of phosphates and phosphorus from wastewater can be found from the literature 57,58,60-69,73 . The use of combined biological and physicochemical treatment processes for phosphorus removal was originally conceived by Beer and Wang at Coxsackie Sewage Treatment Plant, NY 58 , and by Krofta and Wang at the Lenox Institute of Water Technology, MA 65,66 . They successfully used ferric chloride, lime, and alum for precipitation of phosphate from the...

Treatment of Metal Finishing Wastes

Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. In the metal finishing industry, metals or alloys are used as starting materials to manufacture a wide range of metal components. The metal finishing and metal fabricating industry is identified as SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) code 34. SIC code 34 is further divided into nine classes SIC 341 to SCI 349. These subclasses indicate product groups 1 . Metal finishing involves the forming...

Chemical Recovery Cartridge Metallic Replacement method

In this method, a metal (usually iron) in a chemical recovery cartridge (CRC) reacts with the silver thiosulfate in the spent fixer and goes into solution. The less active metal (silver) settles out as a solid. To bring the silver into contact with the iron, the spent fixer is passed through the CRC container, which is filled with steel wool. The steel wool provides the source of iron to replace the silver. The main advantages of this CRC method are the very low initial cost (cartridges cost...

Table 1 Chemical Properties of Palm Oil Mill Effluent POME

BOD (mg L) COD (mg L) Oil and grease (mg L) Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg L) 4.2 3.4-5.2 25,000 10,250-43,750 50,00015,000-100,000 6000 150-18,000 35 4-80 Total nitrogen (mg L) Suspended solid (mg L) Total solid (mg L) 750 180-1400 18,000 5000-54000 40,000 11,500-78,000 process should be optimized. Three biological processes are currently employed by the industry as a series of anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerobic treatments. However, the major reduction of POME polluting strength up to 95...

Application of Biotechnology inon the Sites of Postaccidental Wastes

This direction of environmental biotechnology is known as soil bioremediation. There are many options in the process design described in the literature 7,28,29 . The main options tested in the field are as follows Engineered in situ bioremediation (in-place treatment of a contaminated site) Engineered onsite bioremediation (the treatment of a percolating liquid or eliminated gas in reactors placed on the surface of the contaminated site). The reactors used for this treatment are suspended...

Table 4 Components of Kraft Black Liquor and Characteristics of Kraft Evaporator Condensate

_Kraft black liquor characteristics_ Component__Weight , dry solids basis_ _Kraft liquor evaporator condensate characteristics_ Major organic component Methanol, 60-90 of COD Anaerobic degradability 80-90 of COD Compounds that inhibit anaerobic Reduced sulfur, resin acids, fatty acids, volatile COD, chemical oxygen demand. Source Refs 3 and 6. _Kraft liquor evaporator condensate characteristics_ Major organic component Methanol, 60-90 of COD Anaerobic degradability 80-90 of COD Compounds that...

Fat Splitting B

The manufacture of fatty acid from fat is called fat splitting (B), and the process flow diagram is shown in Fig. 3. Washouts from the storage, transfer, and pretreatment stages are the same as those for process (A). Process condensate and barometric condensate from fat splitting will be contaminated with fatty acids and glycerine streams, which are settled and skimmed to recover Figure 2 Soap manufacture by batch kettle (A) (from Ref. 13). Figure 2 Soap manufacture by batch kettle (A) (from...

Electroless Plating

Electroless plating, as the name implies, does not utilize an electric current for plating. Electroless plating can be carried out as autocatalytic and immersion plating. Autocatalytic plating is the process in which the metal ion in the solution is forced to convert into the metallic state and deposit onto the object to be plated by the use of reducing agents. The process is started by the catalytic action of the surface being plated. For this purpose the surface is pretreated, usually by the...

Table 7 Characteristics of an Acid Waste Stream of a Synthetic Drug Plant at Hyderabad [13

BOD5 at 20 C (mg L) COD (mg L) BOD COD ratio Total solids (mg L) Total volatile solids (mg L) Suspended solids Total nitrogen (mg L) Total phosphorus (mg L) Total acidity as CaCO3 Chlorides as Cl- (mg L) Sulfate as SO42- (mg L) 435 0.4-0.65 2,920-3,260 7,190-9,674 0.34-0.41 18,650-23,880 15,767-20,891 Traces 352 9.4 BOD, biochemical oxygen demand COD, chemical oxygen demand. Table 8 Characteristics of Combined Wastewatera of a Synthetic Drug Plant at Hyderabad 15 Table 8 Characteristics of...