Immune System Boosters

How To Bolster Your Immune System

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The immune system

Further epidemiological studies are required to fully understand the impact on the incidence and prevalence of infections. Even a modest effect on the immune system that may result in a moderate depression of resistance to an infection, or affect its duration or severity, may have a significant aggregate social and economic impact at the population level for very common diseases (such as the common cold and gastroenteritis). Ultraviolet radiation-induced changes in immune response may also affect autoimmune diseases. Increases in ultraviolet radiation may either suppress or aggravate the disease depending on the type of immune response that underlies the disease. It has recently been proposed, based on epidemiological and laboratory evidence, that increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation is associated with a lower prevalence of multiple sclerosis (161). It is also known that ultraviolet radiation aggravates lupus lesions when used as a medical treatment (54). It is now generally...

Immune Function

Although UV-B is strongly absorbed in the skin and in the outer layers of the eye and does not penetrate any deeper into the human body, it can affect the human immune system, because part of the immune system is in the outer layers of skin, and the cells of the skin produce mediators that modulate immune responses both locally and throughout the body (De Gruijl, 1995 Longstreth et al., 1998). De Fabo (1994) and Chapman (1995) suggested that UV-B is the probable cause of infectious diseases and cancer, due to its affect on immune systems. Another concern is that excess UV radiation may reduce the effectiveness of immunizations against infectious diseases (Chapman, 1995). De Gruijl (1995) reported that excess UV-B exposure can suppress immune functions even in people with dark skin.

Impact of Climate Change on Animal Health

Several studies have assessed the relationships between heat stress and immune responses in cattle, chickens or pigs. However, results of those studies are conflicting. In particular, some authors reported an improvement (Soper et al. 1978 Regnier and Kelley 1981 Beard and Mitchell 1987), others described an impairment (Regnier and Kelley 1981 Elvinger et al. 1991 Kamwanja et al. 1994 Morrow-Tesch et al. 1994), and others indicated no effects (Regnier et al. 1980 Kelley et al. 1982 Bonnette et al. 1990 Donker et al. 1990 Lacetera et al. 2002) of high environmental temperatures on immune function. Recently, in a field study carried out in Italy during the summer 2003 (Lacetera et al. 2005), which was characterized by the occurrence of at least three heat waves, there was a profound impairment of cell-mediated immunity in high yielding dairy cows (Fig. 7.1). Interestingly, such results suggest that immunosuppression during hot periods may be responsible for the failure of vaccine...

Two Form Of Giardia Found In Stool

Smallest Creature Electron Microscopy

The pathogen can cause a disease called cryptosporidiosis. The symptoms may appear within 4 to 6 days, but may appear anytime from 2 to 10 days after infection. While some persons may not have symptoms, others have watery diarrhea, headache, abdominal cramps, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, and low)grade, flu)like fever. As in giardiasis, these symptoms may lead to weight loss and dehydration. In healthy persons, these symptoms usually last for several days but rarely more than 2 weeks, at which time the immune system is able to stop the infection. In persons with suppressed immune systems, such as persons with cancer and AIDS and persons who have recently had an organ or bone marrow transplant, the infection may continue and become life)threatening. No known cure or effective treatment is available for Cryptosporidium infection, although an experimental drug called NTZ shows promise. An infected person will simply just recover as soon as the immune system stops the infection.

Secondary plant metabolites and the chemical industry

Which followed in its wake was only possible in the 1960s because of the use of the steroid diosgenin from a Dioscorea species as a starting material. The serendipitous discovery, also in the 1960s, that two alkaloids from the pan-tropical weed Catharanthus rosetis, the Madagascan periwinkle, had anti-cancer properties led to the launch of vincristine and vinblastine which by 1985 had annual world sales of 100 million. Etoposide, an anti-cancer agent synthesised from a chemical in the May apple, Podophyllum peltatum, and used by native Americans for warts, had sales of 15 million by 1989, and oil of the evening primrose, Oenothera species, used by them for skin problems, had found a market for both eczema and the pre-menstrual syndrome. In the late 1980s as the problem of AIDS increased, many plant-derived chemicals were reported to have inhibitory effects against the human immune deficiency virus in vitro and to offer hope of an alternative to the few synthetic drugs available. In...

Impact of Solar UV on Human Health

Vein Oscillation The Eye

Prolonged human exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, in the eyes, and on the immune system. Sunburn (erythema) is the best-known acute effect of excessive UV radiation exposure (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005). Over the longer term, UV radiation induces degenerative changes in skin cells, fibrous tissue, and blood vessels leading to premature skin aging, photodermatoses, and actinic keratoses. Another long-term effect is an inflammatory reaction of the eye. In the most serious cases, skin cancer and cataracts can occur (De Gruijl et al., 2003). The relationship between the exposure to UV radiation and the level of disease is shown in Figs. 4.14 and 4.15. On the other hand, quantifying risks for humans is difficult because the risk depends on styles of human life which evolve in the time. Nevertheless, epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that UV radiation is a definite risk factor for certain types of cataracts,...

Radical Oxygen Species are Unavoidable and Increase During Stress Episodes

Radicals in response to pathogen attack. The rapid production and local accumulation of reactive oxygen species leads to localized cell death in the host, which then may limit the spread of the pathogen.56 In response, some pathogens seem to have evolved mechanisms which detoxify the reactive oxygen species produced by the host. Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast which opportunistically infects humans with a compromised immune system, produces and secretes mannitol. A mutant strain that does not produce mannitol is less virulent.57 Similarly, during the infection process the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum produces mannitol, which seems to protect the fungi from damage by reactive oxygen species produced by the plants.58

Nematode Bacteria Symbiosis

Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, belonging to different species harbour different species of bacteria (Table 13.1). The life cycle of nematode-bacteria association is composed of two stages (i) a free stage in the soil, where the infective juveniles carry bacteria in their guts and search for new insect host, and (ii) a parasitic stage, where the infective juveniles infect insect, release their bacterial symbionts and reproduce in order to produce new infective juveniles (Emelianoff et al. 2007). Both partners benefit from the association. The bacteria provide a nutritive medium for the growth and reproduction of nema-todes. These bacteria are also useful in other two ways (i) largely responsible for the rapid death of the host, as well as (ii) suppressing other competing organisms by the production of antibiotics. On the other hand, nematode protects the bacteria from the external environment, carries them into the insect haemocoel and in some cases...

Plant chemicals in the evolution of mammals and humans

The relation between primates and fleshy fruits was established in the early-mid Eocene (55 to 48 million years bp) when the tropical forests reached their maximum latitudinal extent (Collinson and Hooker, 1991). Plants have formed a significant part of the diet throughout human evolution and there can be no doubt that a wide range of plant chemicals was thereby ingested. Although there is evidence to suggest that the evolution of plant secondary compounds was closely influenced by their interaction with insect pollinators, there is no evidence that mammals have had any impact on the distribution of these compounds but have adapted to them (Lindroth, 1988). The whole of hominid evolution may have taken place against a backdrop of plant secondary compounds similar to those existing today. Recently a chemical from an Australian legume of interest in AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) research was found in morphologically similar species from S. America. The common ancestor of...

Snails and Crustacenas as Intermediate Hosts of Human Disease

Although schistosomiasis commonly occurs in developing countries, an infection related to this disease that occurs in developed countries is cercarial dermatitis or 'swimmer's itch'. This disease occurs worldwide and affects people who are swimming, wading, or working in littoral areas of both marine and freshwater habitats. Infection results when cercaria meant for birds or small mammals such as muskrats penetrate human skin, eliciting an immune response. The resulting skin rash goes away in about a week, the parasites degenerate, and the disease does not progress because humans are not the appropriate host for these animal schistsomes. Prevention involves brisk toweling after leaving the water (because penetration increases with drying and exposure length) and snail control.

Experimental Observations

Kaizen Standard Spiele

The importance of microbial and viral activity in the oceans is becoming ever more apparent recent experiments show that bleaching of corals can be induced by increased viral activity 52 , however, some evidence suggests that viral activity may decrease with increasing CO2 53 . The ability of a host to have an immune response to viral attack is critical for its health. Preliminary evidence suggests that at lowered pH mussels are unable to induce normal immune responses 54 .

Indirect Effects Of Global Warming

The problem of the environment would be further aggravated, creating a recycling of environmental disturbances and furthering the effects of global warming. In Africa and some other developing countries, over population has resulted in serious famine and poverty there have also been cases of close to zero health care, with people suffering from serious curable and incurable diseases. More so, as people migrate from areas hit by global warming impacts to other places, there could be a greater instance of disease transfer. Diseases such as polio and malaria, which the world has been trying to curb, could upsurge. Human immunodeficiency virus acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV AIDS) is another human vectored disease that could increase due to huge migration of people. There could also be greater territorial wars, international disputes, and disrespect for boundary policy if the impacts of global warming are not addressed globally. Thus, global warming does not only affect the...

What The Current Drinking Water Standards

Steel Mill Dermatitis

Liver, kidney, or immune system problems 5 Fecal coliform and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Disease-causing microbes (pathogens) in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. These pathogens may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and people with severely compromised immune systems.

Effects of Solar UV on Human Health and Epidemiology

Human diseases that are linked to UV radiation as either the causative agent or as a factor in susceptibility to disease include several types of skin cancer, eye disease, and damage to the immune system. In addition, it is the UV, primarily UV-B, which is responsible for sunburn and skin aging and wrinkling (Weary, 1996). Sunburn itself is a health issue, but more importantly, some cancers are believed to be related to numerous sunburn episodes.

Radiation Ultraviolet

Exposure to UV radiation also has a range of negative health effects. The most widely publicized of these is the link between exposure to UV and skin cancer. UV radiation is strongly absorbed by DNA, the cellular molecule responsibly for the transfer of hereditary information. The absorption of UV radiation causes chemical bonds in the DNA to be broken and reformed in the wrong order. This can lead to mutations and cancerous growths. UV radiation is also harmful to the eyes, leading to short-term uncomfortable conditions such as arc eye or to more serious conditions such as cataracts. There may also be a link between excessive UV exposure and poor immune response. UV radiation also finds a range of industrial and domestic applications these include

Food and Agrochemicals

The harmful short- and long-term effects of application of agrochemicals on human health have been proven. Several pesticides have been shown to produce complex chronic effects such as change in endocrine functions and immune systems (Woese et al. 1997 Soil Association Organic Standards 2001). Increased uterine weights, reduced pregnancy rates, decreased litter size, interference with development of the reproductive tract or related sexual behaviour are symptoms that are coupled with endocrine disruption (Lundegardh and Martensson 2003). In addition to the short-term direct effects of chemicals on the immune and the endocrine systems, application of several types of agrochemicals during the growing season, typical of conventional systems, will give accumulated and combined effects on living organisms in the ecosystems. Farmers and farm workers are at greatest risk, in particular in countries with less efficient enforcement of safety procedures. Prevention of serious exposure to...

The Seashell Question

Thomas Bartholin, an anatomy professor from the university of Copenhagen, was famous for his discovery of the vessels that carry lymph throughout the body. Lymph is a transparent, yellowish fluid that plays an important role in the immune system and in the transportation of certain materials throughout the body. Bartholin not only conveyed an appreciation for anatomy to steno but introduced the famous seashell question to him.

Health care pharmaceuticals and plants

In addition, there exists the option of relying on the body's natural recuperative powers the do-nothing option. Over the past millenia the human immune system has evolved into a competent and sometimes fearless combatant of disease. A large percentage of all afflictions and diseases will be vanquished by the human immune system if it is left to do the job. In fact, many diseases from which we suffer today, such as breast cancer and coronary heart disease, are just beginning to be understood as a 'healthy' body's reaction to a change in lifestyle away from patterns to which the body had become adapted on an evolutionary time scale. The do-nothing option is the baseline used in evaluating the costs and benefits, or cost-effectiveness, of particular products in the health care market. Thus, discussion of promising pharmaceuticals, whether derived from plant or other sources, must not lose sight of the ultimate market in which performance is measured.

Environmental Development Action in the Third World

ENDA closely works with grassroots groups to contribute to the search for alternative possibilities for development. It also aims to facilitate the access of intellectuals and trained personnel to development programs. ENDA favors integrated action, reflection, and training. Thanks to these actions, the organization seeks to prioritize local, technical, human, and national resources. ENDA particularly targets the area of human rights. This primary objective has led ENDA to support culturally-threatened peoples, to fight against socio-spatial disparities, to assist children and youth in the face of unemployment, and to favor a sustainable development respectful of ecology. ENDA also fights against imported consumption patterns and production models and supports actions against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). All of ENDA's activities are based on the principle of making the positions of Third World countries in international debates visible and effective.

Vibrio fischeri cells navigate physical and chemical barriers to colonize Euprymna scolopes

From the aggregates, the V. fischeri cells migrate through LO pores, reaching ducts that ultimately lead into crypts, the sites of colonization (Fig. 1). In the ducts, the bacteria must move through mucus against an outward current generated by ciliated cells lining the passageway (McFall-Ngai and Ruby 1998). As a further barrier to colonization, the ducts contain high levels of nitric oxide, an anti-microbial agent that may function as a layer of defense against invasion by non-specific bacteria (Davidson et al. 2004). In the crypts, V. fischeri cells may encounter macrophage-like cells, a potential immune surveillance system (Nyholm and McFall-Ngai 1998). In addition, the bacteria may be exposed to toxic oxygen radicals such as hypohalous acid, produced by a halide peroxidase enzyme secreted by epithelial cells within the crypts (Weis et al. 1996 Small and McFall-Ngai 1999). Despite this plethora of potential host defenses, V. fischeri cells can enter the LO and grow to high cell...

Conclusions and Outlook

It may be speculated that other factors prevent bacteria from growing within the host. Invertebrate animals have a powerful innate immune response that has many similarities to that of vertebrates, the large exception being the components of the adaptive immunity (Mallo et al. 2002 Tzou et al. 2002). Other factors could include the release of antimicrobial peptides or enzymes into the crop by either the host or symbiont. Some compounds could be release into the ingested blood during feeding for example from the salivary gland. One would assume that these compounds would be active immediately and have an early effect on bacterial growth or survival. In addition, host hemocytes could be present and phagocytose bacteria or generate oxidative stress. Most likely, the different antimicrobial factors act at different times after feeding. The colonization process can be divided into three distinct stages. The first stage consists of overcoming the antimicrobial properties of the ingested...

UV radiation and infection diseases

Tible to bacterial and parasite infections. Particularly, Saprolegnia, an oomycete, is a common opportunistic facultative parasite of freshwater fish 96 . Infection by Saprolegnia causes loss of epithelial integrity and tissue destruction due to cellular necrosis or dermal and epidermal damage 98,99 . Infections may result from direct UV-B damage to the skin or from suppression of the immune system. In the case of the parasite Saprolegnia, the decrease in the secretion of mucus appears to be crucial for the infection as it acts as the primary physical barrier 100 . However, UV-B radiation may have a strong immunosuppressive effect on fish, probably weakening their resistance to infectious agents in relation to impairment of the non-specific immune defense 101 . Nevertheless, secondary parasitic infections of fish by Saprolegnia after UV-B exposure appear to have been only documented for laboratory studies 102 . On the other hand, results from field observations and experiments have...

Injuries can become sites of infection

Fish exposed to UV-B may experience a depressed immune system and subsequent vulnerability to infection by pathogens 29,30 . Epidermal lesions from sunburn allow invasion by pathogens, especially fungi 2,31 . During laboratory studies, fungal hyphae were frequently observed at the margins of the sunburned fish skin within one or two days of the initial sunburn 2 . These fungal infections progressed over the dorsal surface of the fish and the fish died soon after. Extensive fungal infection was also noted among tiger salamander larvae that had developed skin lesions during UV exposure Carey personal communication . In mammals, UV-B-induced immunosuppression may occur through isomerization of urocanic acid from the trans to the cis form 32-34 , The cis form of urocanic acid may modulate cell-mediated immunity by binding to receptors 35,36 , Urocanic acid occurs in mammalian skin predominantly as the trans isomer. Upon UV-B irradiation of the skin, urocanic acid isomerizes to the cis...

Lactose from whey

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates of three to ten linked monomer sugars most commonly produced by enzymic transglycosylation reactions of lactose (Playne & Crittenden 1996). Oligosaccharides pass through the colon unde-graded, where they encourage the growth of bifidobacteria in the intestine. Oligosaccharides also contribute to the development of the immune system, in human milk they have a protective effect against viral and bacterial infections, stimulate the immune response and enhance the bioavailability of minerals (Geisser et al. 2005). Oligosaccharides are water soluble and mildly sweet, they have a high viscosity and can contribute to the mouth-feel of the product. They can be used as a humectant, to control Maillard browning or inhibit starch retrogradation (Crittenden & Playne 1996).

Tevini Salmo

Brindley (1981). Effects of toxic agents upon fish immune systems a review. In R.P. Sharma (Ed.), Immunologic Considerations in Toxicology 2 (pp. 1-60). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 30. J.F. Knowles (1992). The effect of chronic radiation on the humoral immune response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Int. J. Radiat. Res., 62, 239-248. 37. D.L Fabacher, E.E. Little, S.B. Jones, E.C. DeFabo, L.J. Webber (1994). Ultraviolet-B radiation and the immune response of rainbow trout. In J.S. Stolen, T.C. Fletcher, (Eds), Modulators of Fish Immune Responses Models for Environmental Toxicology, Biomarkers, Immunostimulators (Vol. 1, pp. 205-217). SOS Publications, Fair Haven, New Jersey.

Positive Impacts

The 2002 United Nations assessment of the effects of ozone depletion devoted a single paragraph to UV effects on vitamin D. While noting some evidence for high UV exposure or high levels of vitamin D in reducing the risk of some non-cutaneous cancers, it asserted that there is no simple direct relationship between the vitamin D hormone and UV exposure because of the many regulatory feedback mechanisms, (De Gruijl et al., 2002). The 2006 United Nations assessment (Norval et al., 2007) has a more detailed treatment with about 50 citations dealing with vitamin D benefits for the immune system, internal cancers, autoimmune diseases, and possible infectious diseases.

Ozone depletion

The amount of ultraviolet radiation that may reach a given part of the earth's surface at any time is determined by a great variety of factors, including latitude, season, time of day, altitude, local atmospheric conditions (smog, cloudiness, haze, smoke, dust, fog, altitude and aerosol particles), variation in the thickness of the ozone layer and the angle of the sun above the horizon. Ultraviolet radiation may damage the skin and the eyes and influence the immune system (Table 5). The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin can be acute or chronic. The acute effects are erythema and sunburn, and the chronic effects can be freckles, solar lentigines, melanocytic nevi, solar keratosis, photo-aging and cancer (145). We report here only skin cancer and the effects on the eyes and immune system.

Executive summary

This report reviews the scientific evidence and policy implications for the potential effects of climate change on human health. The introduction describes the initiatives carried out on climate change and human health at both the global and European levels. The first chapter gives an overview of climate change and scenarios for the 21st century for Europe. The second chapter addresses the health effects of climate change, with particular attention to potential effects on thermal stress and vector-borne diseases. The third chapter reviews the health effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, particularly the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the immune system. Climate change may already be affecting human health, and a chapter on the early health effects of climate change is therefore included (early effects in this context are defined as effects anticipated within the next 10-30 years). The final chapters describe the actions necessary to reduce the health effects of climate change....


Another gas emitted from the burning of fossil fuels is nitrous oxide. It is a colorless, nonflammable, sweet-smelling gas having two nitrogen and one oxygen atoms covalently bonded together. When released into the atmosphere, nitrous oxide is the third largest greenhouse gas contributor to global warming, and has more effect than an equal amount of CO2. It is reported that nitrous oxide is 296 times stronger a greenhouse gas than CO2. It attacks ozone in the stratosphere, increasing the amount of ultraviolet light entering the Earth's surface. This ultraviolet light has deleterious effects on the human immune system, as well as the eye, and on the skin. It causes sunburn, inflammation, immunosup-pression, tanning, and the accelerated aging of the skin.


Chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's, emphysema, heart disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and cancer are diseases that have a slow onset and last for extended periods of time. Diseases can also be classified by type, such as infectious, developmental, nutritional, radiation, and chemical. Many diseases, such as neoplastic diseases like cancer, involve both genetic components and environmental factors leading to increases in susceptibility. Thermal, chemical, and radiation damage mainly results from a damaging excess of kinetic energy or ionization of molecules in tissues leading to cell death. Free radicals react with molecules in the cell and change their structure, affecting their ability to function. This is the basis for Paul

Weaker and Weaker

Artificial substances are destroying the ozone layer, which provides protection against ultraviolet rays. This phenomenon is observed every year in polar regions (primarily in the Antarctic) between August and October. Because of this, the Earth is receiving more harmful rays, which perhaps explains the appearance of certain illnesses an increase in skin cancer cases, damage to vision, and weakening of the immune system.

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