References

Allen, D. J., P. Kasibhatla, A. M. Thompson, R. B. Rood, B. G. Doddridge, K. E. Pickering, R. D. Hudson, and S.-J. Lin, Transport-induced interannual variability of caibon monoxide determined using a chemistry and transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 28655-28669, 1996a.

Allen, D. J., R. B. Rood, A. M. Thompson, and R. Hudson, Three dimensional radon 222 calculations using assimilated meteorological data and a convective mixing algorithm, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 6871-6881, 1996b.

Allen, D. J., K. E. Pickering, and A. Molod, An evaluation of deep convective mixing in the Goddard chemical transport model using ISCCP cloud parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25467-25476, 1997.

Chang, J. S., R. A. Brost, I. S. I. Isaksen, S. Madronick, P. Middleton, W. R. Stockwell, C. J. Walcek, A three-dimansional Eulerian acid deposition model: Physical concepts and formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14, 681-14, 700, 1987.

Chatfield, R. B., and P. J. Crutzen, Sulfur dioxide in remote oceanic air: Cloud transport of reactive precursors, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 7111-7132, 1984.

Chatfield R. B., and A. C. Delany, Convection links biomass burning to increased tropical ozone: However, models will tend to overpredict 03, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18473-18488, 1990.

Ching, J. K. S., and A. J. Alkezweeny, Tracer study of vertical exchange by cumulus clouds, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 25, 1702-1711, 1986.

Ching, J. K. S., S. T. Shipley, and E. V Browell, Evidence for cloud venting of mixed layer ozone and aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 22, 225-242, 1988.

Ching, J. K. S., D. W. Byun, J. Young, F. Binkowski, J. Pleim, S. Roselle, J. Godowitch, W. Benjey, and G. Gipson, Science features in Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality System, in Preprints of the Tenth Joint AMS/AWMA Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Phoenix, AZ, 1998.

Crutzen, P. J., and L. T. Gidel, A two-dimensional photochemical model of the atmosphere, 2. The tropospheric budgets of the anthropogenic chlorocarbons, CO, CH4, CH3C1 and the effect of various NO-,, sources on tropospheric ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6641-6661, 1983.

Danielsen, E. F., In-situ evidence of rapid, vertical, irreversible transport of lower tropospheric air into the lower tropical stratosphere by convective cloud turrets and by large-scale upwelling in tropical cyclones, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 8665-8681, 1993.

Del Genio, A. D., and M. S. Yao, Sensitivity of a global climate model to the specification of convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2641-2668, 1988.

Dickerson, R. R., G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. D. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. N. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, and D. H. Stedman, Thunderstorms: An important mechanism in the transport of pollutants, Science, 235, 460—465, 1987.

Dudhia, J., A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front, Monthly Weather Rev., 121, 1493-1513, 1993.

Garstang, M., J. Scala, S. Greco, R. Harriss, S. Beck, E. Browell, G. Sachse, G. Gregory, G. Hill, J. Simpson, W.-K. Tao, and A. Torres, Trace gas exchanges and convective transports over the Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1528-1550, 1988.

Gidel, L. T., Cumulus cloud transport of transient tracers, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6587-6599, 1983.

Greenhut, G. K, Transport of ozone between boundary layer and cloud layer by cumulus clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8613-8622, 1986.

Greenhut, G. K, J. K. S. Ching, R. Pearson, Jr., and T. P. Repoff, Transport of ozone by turbulence and clouds in an urban boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 4757-4766, 1984.

Grell, G. A., Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations, Monthly Weather Rev., 121, 764-767, 1993.

Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. Stauffer, A Description of the Fifth Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), NCAR/TN-389 + STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 1994.

Hack, J. J., Parameterization of moist convection in the NCAR Community Climate Model, CCM2, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5551-5568, 1994.

Hansen, J., G. Russell, D. Rind, P. Stone, A. Lacis, S. Lebendeff, R. Ruedy, and L. Travis, Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: Models I and II, Monthly Weather Rev., Ill, 609-662, 1983.

Jacob, D. J., and M. J. Prather, Radon-222 as a test of convective transport in a general circulation model, Tellus, 42B, 118-134, 1990.

Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, Convective parameterization in mesoscale models: The Kain-Fritsch scheme, in K. A. Emanuel and D. J. Raymond (Eds.), The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1993.

Kawakami, S., Y. Kondo, M. Koike, H. Nakajima, G. L. Gregory, G. W. Sachse, R. E. Newell, E. V Browell, D. R. Blake, J. M. Rodriguez, and J. T. Merrill, Impact of lightning and convection on reactive nitrogen in the tropical free troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28367-28384, 1997.

Kleinman, L. I., and P. H. Daum, Vertical distribution of aerosol particles, water vapor, and insoluble trace gases in convectively mixed air, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 991-1005, 1991.

Kley, D., P. J. Crutzen, H. G. J. Smit, H. Vomel, S. J. Oltmans, H. Grassl, and V Ramanathan, Observations of near-zero ozone concentrations over the convective Pacific: Effects on air chemistry, Science, 274, 230-233, 1996.

Lelieveld, J., and P. J. Crutzen, Role of deep cloud convection in the ozone budget of the troposphere, Science, 264, 1759-1761, 1994.

Luke, W. T., R. R. Dickerson, W. F. Ryan, K. E. Pickering, and L. J. Nunnermacker, Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States 2. Trace gas profiles and distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20647-20670, 1992.

Mahowald, N. M., P. J. Rasch, and R. G. Prinn, Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 26173-26190, 1995.

Moorthi, S., and M. J. Suarez, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert: A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models, Monthly Weather Rev., 120, 978-1002, 1992.

Newell, R. E., et al., Atmospheric sampling of Supertyphoon Mireille with NASA DC-8 aircraft on September 27, 1991, during PEM-West A, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1853-1871, 1996.

Pickering, K. E., R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, J. F. Boatman, and A. Schanot, Trace gas transport in the vicinity of frontal convective clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 759-773, 1988.

Pickering, K. E., R. R. Dickerson, W. T. Luke, and L. J. Nunnermacker, Clear-sky vertical profiles of trace gases as influenced by upstream convective activity, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14879-14892, 1989.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, R. R. Dickerson, W. T. Luke, and D. P. McNamara, Model calculations of tropospheric ozone production potential following observed convective events, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14049-14062, 1990.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and M. Garstang, Photochemical ozone production in tropical squall line convection during NASA Global

Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3099-3114, 1991.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. Scala, W.-K. Tao, R. R. Dickerson, and J. Simpson, Free tropospheric ozone production following entrainment of urban plumes into deep convection. J. Geophys Res., 97, 17985-18000, 1992a.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, Ozone production potential following convective redistribution of biomass emissions, J. Atmos. Chem., 14, 297-313, 1992b.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao, and T. L. Kucsera, Upper tropospheric ozone production following mesoscale convection during STEP/EMEX, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 8737-8749, 1993.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao, R. B. Rood, D. P. McNamara, and A. M. Molod, Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons of three modeling approaches, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1089-1092, 1995.

Pickering, K. E., J. R. Scala, A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, A regional estimate of the convective transport of CO from biomass burning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 289-292, 1992c.

Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, Y. Wang, W.-K. Tao, D. P. McNamara, V W. J. H. Kirchhoff, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Bradshaw, G. L. Gregory, and D. R. Blake, Convective transport of biomass burning emissions over Brazil during TRACE-A, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23993-24012, 1996.

Piotrowicz, S. R., H. E Bezdek, G. R. Harvey, M. Springer-Young, and K. J. Hanson, On the ozone minimum over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 18679-18687, 1991.

Poulida, O., R. R. Dickerson, and A. Heymsfield, Troposphere-stratosphere exchange in a midlatitude mesoscale convective complex: 1. Observations,./ Geophys. Res., 101, 68236836, 1996.

Rasch, P. J., N. M. Mahowald, and B. E. Eaton, Representations of transport, convection, and the hydrologic cycle in chemical transport models: Implications for the modeling of shortlived and soluble species, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28127-28152, 1997.

Riehl, H., and J. Simpson, The heat balance of the equatorial zone, revisited, Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 52, 287-305, 1979.

Scala, J., M. Garstang, W.-K. Tao, K. Pickering, A. Thompson, J. Simpson, V Kirchhoff, E. Browell, G. Sachse, A. Torres, G. Gregory, R. Rasmussen, and M. Khalil, Cloud draft structure and trace gas transport, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 17017-17030, 1990.

Schubert, S. D., R. B. Rood, and J. Pfaendtner, An assimilated data set for earth science applications, Bull. Am. Meteoral. Soc., 74, 2331-2342, 1993.

Stenchikov, G., R. Dickerson, K. Pickering, W. Ellis, B. Doddridge, S. Kondragunta, and O. Poulida, Stratosphere-troposphere exchange in a mid-latitude mesoscale convective complex: Part 2, Numerical simulations,^ Geophys. Res., 101, 6837-6851, 1996.

Stull, R. B., A fair-weather cumulus cloud classification scheme for mixed layer studies, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 24, 49-56, 1985.

Suhre, K., J.-P. Cammas, P. Nedelec, R. Rosset, A. Marenco, and H. G. J. Smit, Ozone-rich transients in the upper equatorial Atlantic troposphere, Nature, 388, 661-663, 1997.

Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, The Goddard cumulus ensemble model. Parti: Model description, Terrestr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 4, 35-72, 1993.

Thompson, A. M., K. E. Pickering, R. R. Dickerson, W. G. Ellis, Jr., D. J. Jacob, J. R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, D. P. McNamara, and J. Simpson, Convective transport over the Central United States and its role in the regional CO and 03 budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18, 703-18,711, 1994.

Thompson, A. M., W.-K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, J. R. Scala, and J. Simpson, Tropical deep convection and ozone formation, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1043-1054, 1997.

Vukovich, F. M., and J. K. S. Ching, A semi-impirical approach to estimate vertical transport by nonprecipitating convective clouds on a regional scale, Atmos. Environ., 24A, 2153-2168, 1990.

Walcek, C. J., W. R. Stockwell, and J. S. Chang, Theoretical estimates of the dynamic, radiative, and chemical effects of clouds on tropospheric trace gases, Atmos. Res., 25, 53-69, 1990.

Walcek, C. J., and G. R. Taylor, A theoretical method for computing vertical distribution of acidity and sulfate production within cumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 339-355, 1986.

Wang, C., and J. S. Chang, A three-dimensional numerical model of cloud dynamics, microphysics, and chemistry 1, Concepts and formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1482714844, 1993.

Wang, C., P. J. Crutzen, V Ramanathan, and S. F. Williams, The role of a deep convective storm over the tropical Pacific Ocean in the redistribution of atmospheric chemical species, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11509-11516, 1995.

Wang, Y., W.-K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, A. M. Thompson, J. S. Kain, R. F. Adler, J. Simpson, P. R. Keehn, and G. S. Lai, Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE-A and PRE-STORM convective systems and associated tracer transport, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24013-24027, 1996.

Zhang, G. J., and N. A. McFarlane, Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model, Atmos. Ocean, 33, 407^46, 1995.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment