Past structural and nonstructural approaches to flood mitigation have not worked, and major past efforts to improve U.S. flood policies have not succeeded. Only 10% of those flood damaged had flood insurance. The floods re-enforced the need to make improvements in floodplain use policies and the federal insurance programs. The considerable failure of the levee systems in 1993 and 1997 revealed that not all levees, particularly agricultural protection levees, can be built in a cost-effective manner to withstand floods. However, many past investments in flood control structures had utility.
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