Global Co Budget

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Tropospheric distributions of CO reflect its sources and sink combined with the effects of transport. There are believed to be four major sources of CO (Table 1): fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities, biomass burning, the oxidation of methane, and the oxidation of nonmethane hydrocarbons, primarily isoprene and the monoterpenes.8'36 Anthropogenic activities are thought to account for about two-

TABLE 1 Estimated Sources and Sinks of CO Typical of Last Decade36

Range

Range

Sources

(Tg CO/yr)

Sinks

(Tg CO/yr)

Industry and transportation

300-500

OH reaction

1400-2600

Biomass burning

300-700

Soil uptake

250-640

Emissions from vegetation

60-160

Loss to the stratosphere

-100

Oceans

20-200

CH4 oxidation

400-1000

NMHC oxidation

200-600

Total sources

1280-3160

Total sinks

1750-3340

thirds of the total source, and reaction with OH radicals is responsible for much of the loss of CO. Sources are unevenly divided between the hemispheres, with as much as 95% of the fossil fuel source, 63% of the biomass burning source, and 68% of the production from the oxidation of NMHC occurring in the Northern Hemisphere.8 Three-dimensional global transport models, using sources of these magnitudes, have reproduced the measured surface distributions and seasonal cycles with varying degrees of success.37-39

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