The major theme of these three floods was extensive losses. However, most weather events, including extremes such as droughts and floods, produce winners as well as losers. The 1993, 1996, and 1997 floods were not exceptions. Scientists and engineers benefited from new knowledge about floods, certain environmental problems are receiving needed attention, most aspects of the river floodplain ecosystem benefited, inadequate federal policies gained public and political awareness and improved policies resulted, damaged often aged or inadequate facilities are being replaced by better facilities and equipment, and many farmers and businesses in nonflood areas benefited financially. The 1993 flood and its uniqueness produced major changes in flood policy including changes in the National Flood Insurance Program Act and the Federal Crop Insurance Program.
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