These extreme events caused unusual effects on riverine systems, extreme damage to "containment" structures, unexpected social and economic impacts, and assessments of the "cause" of the events came under scrutiny. Many system failures due to the floods were no one's fault—the design values were simply exceeded by conditions never or very infrequently experienced since river records have been kept.
Several scientific and technical actions are needed to improve understanding, mitigation, and response to extreme flooding. They include: (1) development of plans for data collection during and after floods, (2) development and installation of better instruments to measure floods and river flows, (3) development of hydro-logic models for floods, and (4) timely collection of flood data before it disappears.
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