Biomass Burning

ANNE M. THOMPSON

1 INTRODUCTION

Biomass fires are both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The natural trigger is lightning, which leads to mid- and high-latitude fires and episodes of smoke and pollution associated with them. Lightning is also prominent in tropical regions when the dry season gives way to the wet season and lightning in convective systems ignites dry vegetation.

Atmospheric consequences of biomass fires are complex. When considering the impacts of fires for a given ecosystem, inputs of fires must be compared to other processes that emit trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. Other processes include industrial activity, fires for household purposes, and biogenic sources, which may themselves interact with fires. That is, fires may promote or restrict biogenic processes (Fig. 1).

Several books have presented various aspects of fire interactions with atmospheric chemistry (Levine, 1991, 1996; Crutzen and Goldammer, 1993) and a cross-disciplinary review of a 1992 fire-oriented experiment appears in SAFARI: The Role of Southern African Fires in Atmospheric and Ecological Environments (van Wilgen et al., 1997). The IGAC/BIBEX core activity (see acronyms at end of chapter) has sponsored field campaigns that integrate multiple aspects of fires— ground-based measurements with an ecological perspective, atmospheric measurements with chemical and meteorological components, and remote sensing (Table 1).

This chapter presents two aspects of biomass fires and the environment. Namely, the relationship between biomass burning and ozone is described, starting with a brief description of the chemical reactions involved and illustrative measurements and interpretation. Second, because of the need to observe biomass burning and its consequences globally, a summary of remote-sensing approaches to the study of fires

Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, and Societal Impacts, Edited by Thomas D. Potter and Bradley R. Colman. ISBN 0-471-21489-2 © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 1 Schematic of processes in tropics with significant production of trace gases -CO. hydrocarbons, or NO—-that contribute to tropo spheric ozone formation. Biomass fires are major sources of CO, hydrocarbons, and NO, but lightning and soils contribute to NO in the upper troposphere and boundary layer, respectively. Soils release CO as well, under certain conditions and vegetative production is a large source of hydrocarbons. Lsoprene from vegetation is oxidized to form CO and more highly reactive oxygenated hydrocarbon intermediates. Besides burning of biomass. burning of wood for fuel use and industrial combustion release the ozone precursors, CO, hydrocarbons, and NO,

Principal Trace Gas Sources in the Tropics

Figure 1 Schematic of processes in tropics with significant production of trace gases -CO. hydrocarbons, or NO—-that contribute to tropo spheric ozone formation. Biomass fires are major sources of CO, hydrocarbons, and NO, but lightning and soils contribute to NO in the upper troposphere and boundary layer, respectively. Soils release CO as well, under certain conditions and vegetative production is a large source of hydrocarbons. Lsoprene from vegetation is oxidized to form CO and more highly reactive oxygenated hydrocarbon intermediates. Besides burning of biomass. burning of wood for fuel use and industrial combustion release the ozone precursors, CO, hydrocarbons, and NO, and trace gases is given. Examples in this chapter are restricted to tropical burning for matters of brevity and because most burning activity globally is within this zone.

2 CHEMICAL REACTIONS: OZONE FORMATION AND EFFECTS OF FIRES ON ATMOSPHERIC OXIDIZING CAPACITY

Pyrogenic emissions of ozone precursors are abundant (Andreae, 1991), and ozone formation from biomass fires has been the subject of much study (Granier et al„ 1996: Lelieveld et al„ 1997). The steps in ozone formation are the same as smog reactions in urban environments, although non-gas-phase chemistry may also play a role because particulate emissions from fires are substantial. The release of reactive hydrocarbons (CH4, but more importantly, nonmethane hydrocarbons), carbon monoxide and NO (nitric oxide) produces a mixture that enhances ozone formation. Table 2 shows the sequence of reactions with NO. CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons (designated as RH).

TABLE 1 Campaigns with Significant Biomass Burning Observations

Date

Name (Acronym)

Location

Reference

3—July-August, 1988, 1990

II—1991 1988 1991

Aug.-Oct. 1992

1992

May, 1994

May-June, 1996 Jan./Feb., 1997

Feb./March, 1998 October, 1999

Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE), 1, 2, 3

TROPOZ

DECAFE FOS

TRAnsport and Chemistry near the Equatorial-Atlantic (TRACE-A) Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92) Southern African Atmospheric Research Initiative (SA'ARI-94) EXPeriment for REgional

Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) SAFARI-97 Field Campaign in

Kenya Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) CLAIRE

1—Tropical Atlantic Ocean

2—Brazilian Rain Forest

3—Alaskan northern wetlands

Europe to America to South

Africa and return Equatorial Africa

South tropical Atlantic Ocean

Southern Africa

Southern Africa

Central African Republic and Republic of Congo

Kenya

Amazon, Brazil; Surinam

JGR 95: (D10) Sep. 20 1990 JGR 97: (D15) Oct. 30 1992 JGR 99: (Dl) Jan. 20 1994 I, Quad. Ozone—19886

JGR 97: (D6), 6187-6193, 1992 J. Atmos. Chem., 22 (1), 1995 JGR 101: (D19), 23515-24330, 1996

JGR 101: (D19) 23505-24330, 1996

JGR 104: (D23) 30625-30657, Dec. 20 1999

JGR 102: (D15) 18879-18888,

Aug. 20 1997 Ann. Geophys-Atm.-Hydr. 17: (8) 1095-1110, Aug. 1999

Note. Those since 1990 were ICAC/BIBEX sponsored. "JGR = Journal of Geophysical Research.

''Quad. Ozone—1988 = Ozone in the Atmosphere, R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian, A. Deepak, Eds., Pub., Hampton, VA, 1989.

TABLE 2 Photochemical Reactions Linking Methane, NMHC, CO, and NO with 03, OH

OH Forms from Ozone Photolysis

Methane Oxidation

[Form formaldehyde: CH30(+02) HCHO]

NMHC Oxidation

CO Oxidation by OH Produces H02

Conversion of NO to N02 by H02, R02, CH302

Formation of 03

3 RESULTS OF TROPICAL FIELD CAMPAIGNS Trace Gas Signatures and Ozone Photochemistry

In Brazil and Africa, experiments directed toward biomass burning (e.g., DECAFE, TRACE-A, SCAR-B, TROPOZ I and II, EXPRESSO) and biogenic emissions (ABLE 2, ABLE 3, LBA) have shown that both pyrogenic and biogenic emissions can lead to substantial ozone formation. Biogenic sources appear to be most important in the boundary layer, below canopy level, where soil NO emissions lead to ozone formation. This was seen during ABLE 2A (Jacob and Wofsy, 1988), where 1 ppbv NO built up near the surface producing > 15 ppbv 03/day. In addition to NO, isoprene emissions were essential to ozone formation. During the SAFARI-92 experiment (September-October 1992), elevated NO levels over the savanna following precipitation (Harris et al., 1996; Zepp et al., 1996) signified biogenic emissions. Aircraft sampling showed that these higher NO signals extended well into the mixed layer and that they lasted 1 to 3 days. This source of NO could contribute to ozone formation, providing a significant fraction in tropical regions during the dry (burning) to wet (nonburning) transition (Swap et al., 1996).

Despite contributions from biogenic sources, persistently high ozone levels throughout the free tropical troposphere during the dry season usually originate from biomass burning and occasionally from urban areas. Figure 2 shows typical ozone and ozone precursor profiles in a region affected by biomass burning, during the October 6, 1992 TRACE-A flight over Zambia. Figure 3 summarizes mean

profiles from ozonesondes launched at Cuiaba (Brazil, 16°S, 56°W) during two campaigns: TRACE-A and SCAR-B. Biomass burning (Artaxo et al., 1998) was much lower in 1992 (TRACE-A) than in 1995 (SCAR-B), and the boundary layer was more stable during the latter period; hence ozone levels in the lower troposphere were greater during SCAR-B.

Studies of ozone photochemical formation during sampling periods on TRACE-A have been made with photochemical steady-state ("point") models (Jacob et al., 1996; Thompson et al., 1996; Zenker et al., 1996; Mauzerall et al., 1998). The mixed layer, near the surface, usually has net ozone formation. For example, in the 4 km nearest the surface, relatively fresh emissions sampled over Brazil (September 27, 1992) and Zambia (October 6, 1992) during TRACE-A produced 10 to 15ppbv 03/day. During TROPOZ I, near the Ivory Coast in December 1987, air parcels with emissions less than 2 days old formed ozone at a 15 to 35ppbv 03/day rate (Jonquieres et al., 1998). In PEM-Tropics A, near biomass burning in southeast Asia, near-surface ozone formation averaged >6ppbv ozone/day (Schultz et al., 1999). Ozone formation increased with altitude because NO was supplied by peroxy-acetylnitrate (PAN) transported into the region (Schultz et al., 1999). In contrast, during TRACE-A, above the mixed layer, ozone formation was in balance between production and loss or net negative during TRACE-A (Jacob et al., 1996; Thompson et al., 1996) because NO was depleted.

In the upper troposphere, photochemical formation often proceeds at modest rates (1 to 3 ppbv/day) and the ozone photochemical lifetime is 2 weeks to 2 months (Thompson et al. 1996; Jacob et al., 1996; Schultz et al., 1999). Usually, ozone formation is slightly positive because NO concentrations are sufficiently high. The requisite NO concentrations (>50pptv) may come from lightning enhancement of NO, recycling of reactive nitrogen, or convective injection of NOx. Venting of the boundary layer in convective cells produced by the intense heat of biomass fires is another mechanism whereby ozone precursors are injected into the free troposphere (Chatfield et al., 1996; 1998). This was seen during African aircraft sampling in TROPOZ (Jonquieres et al., 1998) and TRACE-A (Thompson et al., 1996; Mauzerall et al., 1998).

Analyses of ozone formation show its evolution during transit away from the continents of biomass burning (Chatfield et al., 1996; Thompson et al., 1996; Jonquieres and Marenco, 1998; Jonquieres et al., 1998; Mauzerall et al., 1998; Schultz et al., 1999). Mauzerall et al. (1998) classified the age of air in terms of reactive nitrogen species (NO, HN03, PAN) and CO content, using ratios of tracers like C02, C2H2, C2H6, and CH3COCH3. In parcels sampled during TRACE-A, the limiting ozone-forming reactant was NO, which tended to be used up within a day or so. Older air parcels are refreshed with NO as PAN decomposes thermally, releasing N02, which is rapidly photolyzed to NO. Thus, downwind, ozone formed from NO that was supplied by PAN.

Schultz et al. (1999) examined photochemical characteristics of African plumes, observed thousands of kilometers from their sources, over the Pacific during the September PEM-Tropics A expedition. Figure 4 shows CO over the tropical Pacific (Blake et al., 1999), with many elevated CO segments due to pyrogenic sources from several continents (Olson et al., 1999). Schultz et al. (1999) also find the PAN mechanism for NO to be dominant, as in TRACE-A, but advection of ozone, not

3 RESULTS OF TROPICAL FIELD CAMPAIGNS

Figure 4 (see color insert) CO over tropical Pacific during September 1996 PEM-Tropics A sampling (from Blake et al, 1999), Measurements by G. W. Sachse with a lidar-based instrument. Analysis of possible fire sources is described by Olson et al. (1999). See ftp site for color image.

190+

85 to 90 80 to 85 75 to 80 70 to 75 65 to 70 60 to 65 55 to 60 50 to 55 45 to 50

Carbon Monoxide Distribution

Longitude

Figure 4 (see color insert) CO over tropical Pacific during September 1996 PEM-Tropics A sampling (from Blake et al, 1999), Measurements by G. W. Sachse with a lidar-based instrument. Analysis of possible fire sources is described by Olson et al. (1999). See ftp site for color image.

local photochemistry, is still a major tropica! Pacific ozone source. A plume of ozone with African origins observed over the western Pacific appears in Figure 5.

Biomass burning is not the only large nonurban NO source that contributes to tropical ozone formation. Lightning is also a significant source. TRACE-A observa-

SPIRAL

-155.00

-154.84

-155.00

-155.00

-155.00

-155.00

NLat

Figure 5 (see color insert) Ozone plume over the Pacific seen during the PEM-Tropics A aircraft mission in Sept.-Oct. 19%. (from Ferm et al,, 1999). See ftp site for color image.

SPIRAL

tions throughout the south tropical Atlantic, for example, showed elevated, relatively fresh NO in the upper tropospheric that did not always track other tracers of biomass burning (Smyth etal., 1996). A TRACE-A flight (September 27, 1992) over Brazil in which deep convection transported relatively Iresh biomass burning emissions to the upper troposphere (Pickering et al., 1996) was also punctuated by lightning-produced NO. From comparison of NO enhancements to other biomass burning emittants (CO, hydrocarbons), it appeared that 35 to 40% of the NO from the September 27, 1992 flight on TRACE-A was due to lightning.

Transport of Trace Gas Emissions and Ozone from Biomass Burning

Aircraft, ground-based and sounder sampling, in combination with trajectory and regional dynamical modeling, elucidates the roles of convection and long-range transport in determining the distribution of smoke aerosol, tropical ozone, and ozone precursor distributions. Over large biomass burning regions of north equatorial Africa, the Harmattan winds cause large-scale transport of biomass bunting products from the continent in a southwesterly flow to the Atlantic and toward South America (Jonquieres and Marcneo, 1998; Fig. 6«). From southern African savanna burning, convection on a large regional scale drives a Southern Hemisphere "Great Plume" (Chatfield et al„ 1996, 1998) toward the tropica! Atlantic and Indian

Oceans. Figure 6b shows that fires from South America can also affect the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Ozone from both southern Africa and South America appears seasonally over the south Atlantic in tropospheric ozone satellite retrievals (Chapter 5). South of 15:S, the predominant exit for biomass burning emissions and ozone, which can accumulate in stable layers (Garstang et al., 1996; Garstang and Tyson, 1997: Tyson et al., 1997) is toward the Indian Ocean. In both Atlantic and Indian Ocean exit routes from southern Africa, emissions from fires, vented by shallow or deep convection, inject most of the ozone precursors into the 4 to 8 km layer. These are readily detected in ozone profiles from balloon-borne sondes released over Réunion Island (21°S, 55:E; Baldy et al., 1996; Randriambelo et al., 1999). Examples of fire-affected layers at Réunion appear in Figure 7, In Guo and Chatfield (1998), tracers in the 5th version PennState/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulate the flow of CO from industrial, biogenic, and biomass burning sources over southern Africa to the western Pacific Ocean. CO mixing ratios computed by the model agree with observations during PEM-Tropics A (Hoell et al., 1999),

The route of biomass burning emissions from Brazil has been studied on ABLE 2A, TRACE-A and SCAR-B. Figure 8, which is based on a composite of forward trajectories during the SCAR-B experiment (Longo et al., 1999), shows air parcels

OioneIppbvl December

100 150 Ozonetppbvl

November

0 50 100 150 wo

Ozone[ppbv]

La Reunion 1998 Ozonesonde Profiles - Monthly 0.25 mean profiles September October

0 50 100 150 wo

Ozone[ppbv]

0 50 100 150 200

Ozone[ppbv]

100 150 Ozonetppbvl

November

OioneIppbvl December

0 50 100 150 200

Ozone[ppbv]

Figure 7 Ozone soundings over Réunion Island (2TS, 55'E) in the Indian Ocean, with layers of high ozone due to transport from African burning. Mean monthly profiles with 1-sigma shading.

End date: Aug, 29

a5w "T3W 7àw ¿¿v I5r sëw a5w "®n35 îï» sSi^âsw

13N 10N

Mtt^bL

if-^rim

End date:

Sep, 04

a5w "T3W 7àw ¿¿v I5r sëw a5w "®n35 îï» sSi^âsw

eéw 75« ^73vi éSw BST""®?* sow 4éw^4<5>Tl&» 35513*

1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.5 2.75 3.0 3.25 3.5 3.7S 4.0 425 4.5 4.75 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.0

Height (km)

Figure 8 (see color insert) Composite of forward trajectories from Cuiaba during the 1995 SCAR-B field experiment. A Brazilian version of the Colorado State mesoscale RAMS model was used to provide winds for the University of Sao Paulo kinematic trajectory model (from Longo et al., 1999). See ftp site for color image.

from active burning regions sending ozone and ozone precursors over mountains toward the eastern Pacific Ocean. Unfortunately, there was no satellite remote sensor available in August 1995 to detect flows over the eastern Pacific during SCAR-B. However, satellite data from 1979 to 1992 (Kim and Newchurch, 1996; Thompson and Hudson, 1999) show a seasonal drift of ozone into this region. During TRACE-A, the predominant post-convective flow from Brazilian biomass burning areas at the onset of the wet season was in the westerlies toward the Atlantic. It was estimated that upper tropospheric ozone was largely supplied from the South American continent (Thompson et al., 1997), with additional ozone resulting from lightning-produced NO.

Ozonesondes over Africa and South America, near or downwind from sources, as well as ozonesondes at more remote locations—Réunion (21°S, 55°E), Ascension (8°S, 14°W), American Samoa (14°S, 170°W)—show impacts of biomass burning ozone (Cros et al., 1992; Fishman et al., 1992; Baldy et al., 1996; Oltmans et al., 1998). Examples of ozone profiles at Pretoria (25°S, 28°E) and Etosha Park (19°S, 15°E) during SAFARI-92 and TRACE-A appear in Figures 9a and 9b. Neither of these sites is in a burning region, but clusters of back trajectories initiated at the peaks with arrows show that they may be several days' transport time from African burning or a week from South American savanna burning. Back trajectories from the Etosha Park ozonesonde profile of October 11, 1992, indicated significant exposure to fires within 2 days (Fig. 9c). For the Pretoria ozonesonde sample on October 11, 1992, launched within 30 km of Johannesburg, the number of fires encountered in a 5-day back trajectory is less and travel time is greater than air parcel origins on October 11, 1992, at Etosha Park.

Airborne sampling and sounding profiles show that layers of enriched or depleted ozone are remarkably stable (Garstang et al., 1996; Garstang and Tyson, 1997; Newell et al., 1999). Using the SAFARI-92/TRACE-A soundings over Irene, Garstang et al. (1996) found very little vertical mixing and estimated that some of the stable layers observed had lifetimes greater than 50 days.

4 REMOTE SENSING

Remote sensing is an invaluable tool for looking more closely at biomass burning effects in the atmosphere. In terms of trace gases, ozone and CO instrumentation flown on aircraft and in space has seen the imprint of biomass fires on a widespread basis. Remote sensing of carbonaceous absorbing aerosols (soot, smoke) is made from airborne platforms and from a number of space-borne instruments. In addition, imagers are able to detect fires (Cahoon et al., 1992) and fire burn scars on the earth (Justice et al., 1996). Instrumentation is summarized in Table 3 and applications are described below.

Carbon Monoxide

The Shuttle-borne Measurement of Air Pollution by Space (MAPS; Reichle et al., 1990; Journal of Geophysical Research, Aug. 20, 1998) instrument is a gas correla-

4 REMOTE SENSING 255

Pretoria 10/11/92

0 50 100 150 200

0 50 100 150 200

Etosha 10/11/92 20 l

0 50 100 150 200

0 50 100 150 200

Trajectory-Fire Overpass at 320 Thêta

278 280 282 284 (c) Julian Day

Figure 9 (a) Pretoria ozone sounding for October 11, 1992. (b) Etosha sounding for October 11, 1992. (c) Fires passed over by air parcels in a cluster of back trajectories initiated at ~5 km (9 = 320 K) at the Etosha location on October 11, 1992. This suggests fire emissions contribution to ozone profile in (b). Satellite fire counts from Justice et al. (1996); gaps refer to days with missing fire data.

278 280 282 284 (c) Julian Day

Figure 9 (a) Pretoria ozone sounding for October 11, 1992. (b) Etosha sounding for October 11, 1992. (c) Fires passed over by air parcels in a cluster of back trajectories initiated at ~5 km (9 = 320 K) at the Etosha location on October 11, 1992. This suggests fire emissions contribution to ozone profile in (b). Satellite fire counts from Justice et al. (1996); gaps refer to days with missing fire data.

TABLE 3 Remote Sensing Instrumentation fur Detection of Smoke, Fires, and Trace Gas Emissions

MAS: airborne surface imager

AVHRR. GOES: smoke detection from (ires

AVI1RR: surface imaging for active fires and burn scars

Cloud and smoke Jidar: NASA/ER-2 instrument

DMSP: active fires

GOME: ozone, N02, HCHO, BrO

MAPS, MOPITT: CO

TOMS: ozone, smoke, and dust aerosol (also S02, sulfate aerosols)

tion radiometer that senses CO by differencing two cells. For the region of the atmosphere of greatest sensitivity, between 5 and 10 km. MAPS gives an accurate measurement of carbon monoxide. Operating on the Space Shuttle in 1981, twice in 1984 and in 1994, with data covering 55°N to 55aS, MAPS observed CO from urban pollution as well as from biomass burning. Biomass burning signatures in the tropics

CO Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

30 45 60 75 90 105 120

135 150 165+

1

mm

Figure 10 (see color insert) (a) MAI'S CO, April 1994 (from Christopher et al„ 1998). See ftp site for color image.

Figure 10 (see color insert) (a) MAI'S CO, April 1994 (from Christopher et al„ 1998). See ftp site for color image.

4 REMOTE SENSING 257

4 REMOTE SENSING 257

Fire Count

20 40 60 BO 100 120 140 1 60 180 200 220+

Figure 10 (see color insert) (i>) coincident fires during April 1994 Space Shuttle flight (from Christopher et al., 1998). See ftp site for color image.

Figure 10 (see color insert) (i>) coincident fires during April 1994 Space Shuttle flight (from Christopher et al., 1998). See ftp site for color image.

are evident as elevated CO concentrations, usually >60ppbv. This was confirmed in an airborne campaign of validation measurements conducted during the 1994 MAPS operations. Because MAPS detects midtropospheric CO, it essentially detects areas of burning and convective transport in which CO from the boundary layer is transponed to midtroposphere. Urban CO that escapes the boundary layer can also be detected. Figure 10 shows MAPS CO and remotely sensed fires contributing to the CO over southern Asia (from Christopher et al., 1998).

MO PITT, the new CO and methane sensor aboard the Terra spacecraft, was launched into orbit in December 1999. As of this writing, MOP1TT observations had not yet begun.

Tropospheric Ozorie

The application of ozone remote sensing to the troposphere, in a series of studies by Fishman and co-workers (Fishman et al., 1986, 1990; Fishman and Brackett, 1997),

Figure 11 Ozonesonde profiles during the TRACE-A field experiment (September 9 to October 22, 1992) over (a) Natal, Brazil (6°S, 35°W) and (b) Ascension Island (8°S, 15°W).

4 REMOTE SENSING 259

MODIFIED RESIDUAL TROPOSPHERIC 03 (DOBSON UNITS)

DJF 1979-1992

DJF 1979-1992

Longitude

Figure 12 (see color insert) Wave-one pattern in tropospheric ozone apparen! in TOMS satellite data, averaged from 2 maps/month during the 1979-1992 Nimbus 7 observing period. Wave appears to be preseni ihroughout year. Scale is DU (Dobson units). Cf. Figure A1 in Thompson and Hudson (1999). See Pip site for color image.

Longitude

Figure 12 (see color insert) Wave-one pattern in tropospheric ozone apparen! in TOMS satellite data, averaged from 2 maps/month during the 1979-1992 Nimbus 7 observing period. Wave appears to be preseni ihroughout year. Scale is DU (Dobson units). Cf. Figure A1 in Thompson and Hudson (1999). See Pip site for color image.

gave the first insight into the extent of biomass burning effccts on tropospheric ozone. The entire south Atlantic basin shows a tropospheric ozone maximum in the latter part of the Southern Hemisphere biomass burning season. Because the TOMS satellite instrument measures column ozone, and has limited sensing capacity below 500mbar, the vertical characteristics of enhanced ozone seen from space had to be confirmed by ozonesondes (Fishman et al., 1992). Layering of ozone from the boundary layer to 15 km is evident in sondes from Natal (coastal Brazil at 6 S) and Ascension Island (8CS, 15; W: Fig. 11). These profiles were taken during the 1992 SAFARI/TRACE-A experiments.

The intensity of the ozone maximum feature varies from year-to-year, and the chemical consequences of biomass burning appear to overlie a persistent wave-one

High Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Column from El-Nino Period

1Z0E

1S0E 180E

1Z0E

1S0E 180E

Figure 14 (see color insert) Tropospheric column ozone (in DU, from modified-residual method; Thompson and Hudson, 1999) during El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of late 1982 (upper panel) as seen in tropical tropospheric ozone map and for September 1997 (lower panel). See ftp site for color image.

Figure 14 (see color insert) Tropospheric column ozone (in DU, from modified-residual method; Thompson and Hudson, 1999) during El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of late 1982 (upper panel) as seen in tropical tropospheric ozone map and for September 1997 (lower panel). See ftp site for color image.

DECAFE Dynamique Et Chimie Atmosphérique en Forêt Equatoriale

[1988; FOS (Fires of Savannas)/DECAFE = 1991] DMSP Defense Mapping Satellite Project

EXPRESSO Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants

GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (operating 1995-)

IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project

MAPS Measurements of Air Pollution from Shuttle (1981, 1984,

1994)

MAS MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer)

Airborne Simulator MOPITT Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere

PEM-Tropics A Pacific Exploratory Mission (1996) PEM -Tropics B Pacific Exploratory Mission (1999)

SAFARI Southern African Fire Atmospheric Research Initiative (1992)

SCAR-B Smoke, Clouds and Radiation—Brazil (1995)

SEAFIRE Southeast Asia Fire Experiment (1997)

TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer {Nimbus 7, 1978-1993;

Meteor, 1991-1994; ADEOS, 1996-1997; Earth-Probe, 1996-)

TRACE-A Transport and Atmsopheric Chemistry near the Equator—

Atlantic (1992)

TROPOZ Tropospheric Ozone Campaigns (I = 1987; II = 1991)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thanks to Robert Chatfield and Volker Kirchhoff for comments, discussion, and prepublication results. Graphical and manuscript assistance were provided by J. C. Witte, T. L. Kucsera (SSAI at NASA/Goddard), A. V Cresce (University of Maryland), and J. R. Ziemke (SCA at NASA/Goddard).

REFERENCES

Andreae, M. O., Biomass burning: Its history, use and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate, in J. S. Levine (Ed.), Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic and Biospheric Implications, MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1991, pp. 3-21.

Artaxo, P., E. T. Fernandes, J. V Martins, M. A. Yamasoe, P. V Hobbs, W. Maenhaut, K. M. Longo, and A. Castanho, Large-scale aerosol source apportionment in Amazonia, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 31837-31848, 1998. Baldy S., G. Ancellet, M. Bessafi, A. Badr, and D. Lan Sun Luk, Field observations of tropospheric vertical distribution of tropical ozone at a remote marine site in the southern hemisphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23835-23849, 1996.

Blake, N. J., D. R. Blake, O. W. Wingenter, B. C. Sive, L. M. McKenzie, J. P. Lopez, I. J. Simpson, H. E. Fuelberg, G. W. Sachse, B. E. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, M. A. Carroll, G. M. Albercook, and F. S. Rowland, Influence of southern hemispheric biomass burning on mid-tropospheric distributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons and selected halocarbons on the remote South Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 16213-16232, 1999.

Cahoon, Jr., D. R., B. J. Stocks, J. S. Levine, W. R. Cofer III, and K. P. O'Neill, Seasonal distribution of African savanna fires, Nature, 359, 812-815, 1992.

Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, and R. W. Stewart, An 11-year solar cycle in tropospheric ozone from TOMS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 185-188, 1999.

Chatfield, R. B., J. A. Vastano, H. B. Singh, and G. W. Sachse, A general model of how fire emissions and chemistry produce African/Oceanic plumes (03, CO, PAN, smoke) seen in TRACE-A, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24279-24306, 1996.

Chatfield, R. B., J. A. Vastano, L. Li, G. W. Sachse, and V S. Connors, The Great African plume from biomass burning: Generalizations from a three-dimensional study of TRACE A carbon monoxide, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 28059-28077, 1998.

Christopher, S. A., C. Joyce, and R. M. Welsh, Satellite investigations of fire, smoke, and carbon monoxide during April 1994 MAPS mission: Case studies over tropical Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19327-19336, 1998.

Cros, B., D. Nganga, A. Minga, J. Fishman, and V Brackett, Distribution of tropospheric ozone at Brazzaville, Congo, determined from ozonesonde measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12869-12875, 1992.

Crutzen, P. J., and J. G. Goldammer, Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires: Report of the Dahlem Workshop, Wiley, New York, 1993.

Fenn M. A., E. V Browell, C. F. Butler, W. B. Grant, S. A. Kooi, M. B. Clayton, G. L. Gregory, R. E. Newell, Y. Zhu, J. E. Dibb, H. E. Fuelberg, B. E. Anderson, A. R. Bandy, D. R. Blake, J. D. Bradshaw, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, S. T. Sandholm, H. B. Singh, and R. W. Thornton, Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Pacific during the burning season, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 16197-16212, 1999.

Fishman, J., V G. Brackett, and K. Fakhruzzaman, Distribution of tropospheric ozone in the tropics from satellite and ozonesonde measurements, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54, 589-597, 1992.

Fishman, J., and V G. Brackett, The climatological distribution of tropospheric ozone derived from satellite measurements using version 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment data set, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19275-19278, 1997.

Fishman, J., P. Minnis, and H. G. Reichle, Use of satellite data to study tropospheric ozone in the tropics, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 14451-14465, 1986.

Fishman, J., C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, and J. A. Logan, The distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 3599-3617, 1990.

Fujiwara, M., K. Kita, S. Kawakami, T. Ogawa, N. Komala, S. Saraspriya, and A. Suripto, Tropospheric ozone enhancements during the Indonesian forest fire events in 1994 and in 1997 as revealed by ground-based operations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2147-2420, 1999.

Garstang, M. and P. D. Tyson, Atmospheric circulation, vertical structure and transport, in B. van Wilgen, M. Andreae, J. Goldammer, and J. Lindesay (Eds.), Fire Southern African

Savanna: Ecological and Atmospheric Perspectives, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, 1997, Chapter 6.

Garstang M., P. D. Tyson, R. J. Swap, M. Edwards, P. Källberg, and J. A. Lindesay, Horizontal and vertical transport of air over southern Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23721-23736, 1996.

Granier, C., W-M. Hao, G. Brasseur, and J-F. Müller, Land-use practices and biomass burning: Impact on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, in J. S. Levine (Ed.), Biomass Burning and Global Change, MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1996, pp. 140-148.

Guo, Z., and R. B. Chatfield, Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American fires pollute the south Pacific, paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Atmospheric Sciences and Application to Air Quality, Beijing, November 3-5, 1998.

Harris G. W., F. G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker, Airborne observations of strong biogenic NO.f emissions from the Namibian savanna at the end of the dry season, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23707-23711, 1996.

Hoell J. M., D. D. Davis, D. J. Jacob, M. O. Rodgers, R. E. Newell, H. E. Fuelberg, R. J. McNeal, J. L. Raper, and R. J. Bendura, Pacific Exploratory Mission in the tropical Pacific: PEM-Tropics A, August-September 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 5567-5583, 1999.

Hsu, C. N., J. R. Herman, O. Torres, B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. Chatenet, and F. Lavenu, Comparisons of the TOMS aerosol index with Sun-photometer aerosol optical thickness: Results and applications, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6269-6279, 1999.

Hudson, R. D., and A. M. Thompson, Tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) from TOMS by a modified-residual method, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22129-22145, 1998.

Jacob, D. J., and S. C. Wofsy, Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1477-1486, 1988.

Jacob, D. J., B. G. Heikes, S. M. Fan, J. A. Logan, D. L. Mauzerall, J. D. Bradshaw, H. B. Singh, G. L. Gregory, R. W. Talbot, D. R. Blake, and G. W. Sachse, Origin of ozone and NOx in the tropical troposphere: A photochemical analysis of aircraft observations over the South Atlantic Basin, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24235-24250, 1996.

Jonquieres, I., and A. Marenco, Redistribution by deep convection and long-range transport of CO and CH4 emissions from the Amazon basin, as observed by the airborne campaign TROPOZ II during the wet season, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19075-19091, 1998.

Jonquieres, I., A. Marenco, A. Maalej, and F. Rohrer, Study of ozone formation and transatlantic transport from biomass burning emissions over West Africa during the airborne Tropospheric Ozone Campaigns TROPOZ I and TROPOZ II, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19059-19073, 1998.

Justice, C. O., J. D. Kendall, P. R. Dowty, and R. J. Scholes, Satellite remote sensing of fires during the SAFARI campaign using NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer data, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23851-23863, 1996.

Kim, J.-H., and M. J. Newchurch, Climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone over the Eastern Pacific ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3,723-3,726, 1996.

Krishnamurti, T. N., M. C. Sinha, M. Kanamitsu, D. Oosterhof, H. Fuelberg, R. Chatfield, D. J. Jacob, and J. Logan, Passive tracer transport relevant to the TRACE-A experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23889-23907, 1996.

Lelieveld, J., P. J. Crutzen, D. Jacob, and A. M. Thompson, Modeling of biomass burning influences on tropospheric ozone, in B. W. van Wilgen (Ed.), Fire in the Southern Africa

Savannas: Ecological and Atmospheric Perspectives, University of Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, 1997, Chapter 10. Levine, J. S., Biomass Burning: Atmospheric. Climatic and Biospheric Implications, MIT

Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991. Levine, J. S., Biomass Burning and Global Change, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996. Liew, S. C., L. K. Kwo, K. Padmanabhan, O. K. Lim, and H. Lim, Delineating land/forest fire burnt scars with ERS interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2409-2412, 1999.

Longo, K. M„ A. M. Thompson, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, L. A. Remer, S. R. de Freitas, M. A. F. S. Dias, P. Artaxo, W. Hart, J. D. Spinhirne, and M. A. Yamasoe, Correlation between smoke and tropospheric ozone concentration in Cuiaba during Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12113-12129, 1999. Mauzerall, D. L., J. A. Logan, D. J. Jacob, B. E. Anderson, D. R. Blake, J. D. Bradshaw, B. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, H. Singh, and B. Talbot, Photochemistry in biomass burning plumes and implications for tropospheric ozone over the tropical South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res.,

103, 8401-8423, 1998.

Newell, R. E., V Thouret, J. Y. N. Cho, P. Stoller, A. Marenco, and H. G. Smit, Ubiquity of quasi-horizontal layers in the troposphere, Nature, 398, 316-319, 1999. Olson, J. R., B. A. Baum, D. R. Cahoon, and J. H. Crawford, Frequency and distribution of forest, savanna and crop fires over tropical region during PEM-Tropics A, J. Geophys. Res.,

104, 5865-5876, 1999.

Oltmans, S. J., A. S. Lefohn, H. E. Scheel, J. M. Harris, H. Levy, I. E. Galbally, E. G. Brunke, C. P. Meyer, J. A. Lathrop, B. J. Johnson, D. S. Shadwick, E. Cuevas, F. J. Schmidlin, D. W. Tarasick, H. Claude, J. B. Kerr, and O. Uchino, Trends of ozone in the troposphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 139-142, 1998. Pickering, K. E„ A. M. Thompson, Y. Wang, W-K Tao, D. P. McNamara, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Bradshaw, G. L. Gregory, and D. R. Blake, Convective transport of biomass burning emissions over Brazil during TRACE-A, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23993-24012, 1996. Randriambelo, T., J. L. Baray, S. Baldy, P. Bremaud, and S. Cautenet, A case study of extreme tropospheric ozone contamination in the tropics using in-situ, satellite, and meteorological data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1287-1290, 1999. Reichle, H. G„ V. S. Connors, J. A. Holland, R. T. Sherrill, H. A. Wallio, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, B. B. Gormsen, and W. Seiler, The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon-monoxide during early October 1984, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 9845-9856, 1990. Schultz, M. G„ D. J. Jacob, Y. H. Wang, J. A. Logan, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, J. D. Bradshaw, E. V. Browell, M. A. Fenn, F. Flocke, G. L. Gregory, B. G. Heikes, G. W. Sachse, S. T. Sandholm, R. E. Shetter, H. B. Singh, and R. W. Talbot, On the origins of tropospheric ozone and NOx, over the tropical South Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 5829-5844, 1999. Smit, H., D. Kley, S. McKeen, A. Volz, and S. Gilge, The latitudinal and vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Ocean in the southern and northern hemispheres, in R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian (Eds.), Ozone in the Atmosphere, 1989, pp. 419^122. Smyth, S. B„ S. T. Sandholm, J. D. Bradshaw, R. W. Talbot, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, F. S. Rowland, H. B. Singh, G. L. Gregory, B. E. Anderson, G. W. Sachse, J. E. Collins, and A. S. Bachmeier, Factors influencing the upper free tropospheric distribution of reactive nitrogen over the South Atlantic during the TRACE A experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24165— 24186, 1996.

Swap, R. J., M. Garstang, S. A. Macko, R D. Tyson, and R Kállberg, Comparison of biomass burning emissions and biogenic emissions to the tropical south Atlantic, in J. S. Levine (Ed.), Biomass Burning and Global Change, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996, pp. 396402.

Thompson, A. M., B. G. Doddridge, J. C. Witte, R. D. Hudson, W. T. Luke, J. E. Johnson, B. J. Johnson, and S. J. Oltmans, Shipboard and satellite views of elevated tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic in January-February 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3317-3320, 2000.

Thompson, A. M., and R. D. Hudson, Tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the modified-residual method: Evaluation, El Niño signals and trends based on Atlantic regional time series, J. Geophys. Res., 26961-26975, 1999.

Thompson, A. M., K. E. Pickering, D. P. McNamara, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. Hudson, J. H. Kim, E. V Browell, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, and D. Ngatiga, Where did tropospheric ozone over southern Africa and the tropical Atlantic come from in October 1992? Insights from TOMS, GTE/TRACE-A and SAFARI-92, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 24251-24278, 1996.

Thompson, A. M., W-K. Tao, K. E. Pickering, J. R. Scala, and J. Simpson, Tropical deep convection and ozone formation, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1043-1054, 1997.

Tyson, P. D., M. Garstang, A. M. Thompson, P. D'Abreton, R. D. Diab, and E. V Browell, Atmospheric transport and photochemistry of ozone over central Southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 10623-10635, 1997.

van Wilgen, B. W., M. O. Andreae, J. G. Goldammer, and J. A. Lindesay, Fire in the Southern Africa Savannas: Ecological and Atmospheric Perspectives, Witwatersand University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1997.

Weller, R., R. Lilischkis, O. Schrems, R. Neuber, and S. Wessel, Vertical ozone distribution in the marine atmosphere over the central Atlantic Ocean (56°S-50°N), J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1387-1399, 1996.

Zenker, T., A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, T. L. Kucsera, F. G. Wienhold, G. W. Harris, P. LeCanut, M. O. Andreae, and R. Koppmann, Regional trace gas distribution and airmass characteristics in the haze layer over southern Africa during the biomass burning season (Sep./Oct. 1992): Observations and modeling from the STARE/SAFARI-92/DC-3, in J. S. Levine (Ed.), Biomass Burning and Global Change, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996, pp. 296-308.

Zepp, R. G., W. L. Miller, R. A. Burke, D. A. B. Parsons, and M. C. Scholes, Effects of moisture and burning on soil-atmosphere exchange of trace carbon gases in a southern African savanna, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23699-23706, 1996.

Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia, Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: The assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22115-22128, 1998.

Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, A. M. Thompson, and D. P. McNamara, Zonal asymmetries in southern hemisphere column ozone: Implication of biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14421-14427, 1996.

0 0

Post a comment