Contents

Water Freedom System

Survive Global Water Shortages

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Preface 1

Foreword 3

Chapter 1: Water and Climate:

An Introduction 10

The Hydrologic Cycle 10

Table: Location and Form of Water on Earth 12

The Ocean Affects Climate 13

Water, Climate, and People 14

Sidebar: Global Warming May Affect Monsoons 16

Notes 17

Chapter 2: Water, Ice, and Global

Warming 19

The Ocean Absorbs Heat 19

The Ocean Absorbs Carbon 20 Sidebar: Fight Global Warming by Putting Crop

Residue in the Sea 21

Water, Climate, and Feedback Loops 22

The Impact of Water Vapor Feedback 23

The Ice Albedo Feedback Loop 24

Graph: Arctic Sea Ice Extent 25

Other Feedback Effects 26

Notes 28

Chapter 3: Rising Sea Levels 30

Causes 30

Heated Water Takes Up More Space 30

Melting Glaciers May Raise Sea Levels 32

Sidebar: Polar Bears and Glacial Melt 33

The Melting of Mountain Ice 34

The Melting of Giant Ice Sheets 35

Graph: Contributors to Rising Sea Levels, 1993-2003 36

Notes 39

Debates 40

The North Atlantic Current 40

Sidebar: Climate Disaster in Popular Culture 42

How Much Will Sea Levels Rise? 43

Table: Rise in Sea Levels on the Atlantic Coast 47

Notes 48

Effects 48

U.S. Coastlines 49 Table: California Population Vulnerable to a 100-Year

Flood Along the Pacific Coast, by County 50

Sidebar: The Wetland Feedback Loop 51

Global Coastlines 53

Islands 54

Mitigating the Damage 56

Notes 57

Chapter 4: Rainfall, Hurricanes, and Drought 59

Increased Rainfall 59 Sidebar: Record Snowfall of 2010 Does Not Contradict Global Warming 61 Benefits of Increased Rainfall 62 Hurricanes and Extreme Weather Events 62 Hotter, Drier Climates 67 Map: Projected Changes in Precipitation from 198099 to 2090-99 68 Sidebar: Global Warming May Have Contributed to Slaughter in Darfur 69 Notes 72

Chapter 5: Water Supply 74

Rivers and Water Supply 74

Lakes and Water Supply 75

Sidebar: Lake Chad Disappears 77

Melting Snow and Water Supply 78 Table: Predicted Change in Discharge of Selected River Mouths Due to Climate and Water Use

Changes 80

Groundwater and Water Supply 81

Water for Crops 82

Notes 85

Chapter 6: Water and Energy 87

Hydropower 87

Tidal Power 88

Wave Power 90

Hydroelectric Power: Pros and Cons 91 Graph: United States Electrical Production in 2007

by Source of Energy 92

Hydroelectric Power and Greenhouse Gases 94

Sidebar: The Vakhsh River and Climate Change 95

Notes 97

Chapter 7: Conclusion 99

Water Affects Climate 99

Sea Levels, Rain, and Drought 101

Energy from Water 102

The Future of Water and Climate 103

Glossary 104

For Further Research 107

Index 112

About the Author 120

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