Impact level 3 Community inundation impacts

Gulf Coast Surge Height > 1.83 meters and < 2.44 meters (> 6 feet and < 8 feet) For a short time Port St. Joe was isolated from the east and west but roads to the north remained open. A washed- out bridge east of the city interrupted travel between Port St. Joe and Apalachicola while high tides on the west at Hiland View, a Port St. Joe suburb, cut the route between this city and Panama City. Tides were five feet above normal at Apalachicola and Carrabelle and six or seven feet at...

The California Algorithms

The California Algorithms (Payne & Tignor, 1978) are a set of 10 algorithms that are based on the same principle. They use a decision tree based on traffic states for incident detection. In this set, Algorithm 8 and Algorithm 7 are the most popular ones. The California Algorithms, developed using data from the Los Angeles roadway system, are one of the first full-scale incident detection algorithms developed. They are normally used as benchmarks for evaluating the performance of other...

Results

Of those eligible to participate, 86.8 responded to the survey. In the study sample, 28 (n 162) of the residents interviewed reported evacuating prior to Hurricane Isabel landfall, while 72 (n 408) did not evacuate. Residents 50 years or older were 10 (95 CI 2 , 18 ) less likely to have evacuated when compared with younger residents. Households with children under the age of 18 living at home were 13 (5 , 22 ) more likely to have evacuated than those without children. Race, gender and marital...

A closer look at the poststorm changes in my practice

In my own practice, I did not sense that the patient volumes had not fallen in pace with hospital-wide data. There did, however appear to be some unusual trends emerging, which with the assistance of a student working in my laboratory I decided to investigate further. It was round 6 months after the storm when, while attempting to get a routine confirmatory test for early puberty, I was informed that I would have to wait, as the required medication had been in the clinic during power shutdowns...

Introduction

Rapid delineation of potential damage from hurricanes to the natural and human-modified landscape is critical for disaster management and for assessment of ecological and economic impacts. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information Systems Science (GIS), and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) provide new tools for delineating damage potential and for assessing destruction after natural disasters. Historically, airborne and space RS missions have been used for...

HSEES incidents hazardous substances involved

A total of 283 hazardous substances were released in the 245 hurricane-related events. The number of hazardous substances released per event ranged from 1 to 8. Most events were air releases (88 ), 9 were spills, 1 were fires, 1 were threatened releases, and < 1 involved an air release with a fire. The categories of hazardous substances most frequently released in these events were mixture across categories (34 ), carbon monoxide (21 ), volatile organic compounds (16 ), and other inorganic...

Atlantic tropical cyclone activity 1938 2009

The data set used here for the Atlantic Ocean has the longest period of record at 72 years. Since 1938, there have been a total of 752 TCs, including 326 tropical storms, and 165, 78, 86, 70, and 27 category 1 - 5 hurricanes (Table 3a, 4). During the 2000-2009 tropical cyclone seasons, there were 72 Atlantic hurricanes (Table 3a), which means that the years since the LJ00 study were the most active during the 1938 - 2009 record. However, the Atlantic TC seasons since 1995 have been relatively...

HSEES events involving evacuation response and nearby areas

Activities conducted to protect public health during hurricane-related events included health advisories (n 14) and environmental sampling (n 10). One building was evacuated because of a hurricane-related hazardous substances event the evacuation lasted 2 hours. No response personnel were involved in 80 of the events multiple types of responders responded to the remaining 165 events. Personnel most frequently responding to hurricane-related events included company response teams (n 128) and...

St Charles Parish

It is not clear how many of the residents of St. Charles Parish evacuated prior to Katrina, but regardless, even those that did evacuate did not stay evacuated for very long. The populated areas of this parish are mostly above sea level. The levees did not breach and pumping stations continued to function, so there was minimal flooding. Access was limited initially due to an excess of downed foliage (a bigger problem in a rural parish), but this was quickly cleared. Importantly, generators were...

Delineating potential damage from Hurricane Katrina An example of geospatial applications to disaster management

Hurricane Katrina provided an unparalleled opportunity to study a variety of damage conditions from hurricane force wind and rain over a wide area and range of landscape conditions. According to a National Hurricane Center (NHC) (Knabb et al., 2005) report, Hurricane Katrina was likely at Saffir-Simpson Category 4 storm a couple of hours before making landfall. Comparisons have been made between Hurricane Camille (1969) and Hurricane Katrina (2005). Fritz et al., (2007) mention that Hurricane...

Carbon monoxide incidents

Carbon monoxide was the most frequently released single hazardous substance. Carbon monoxide poisoning, particularly from misuse of generators in residences, was the largest source of the morbidity and mortality over two-thirds of the 160 victims were injured in carbon monoxide-related events. In another study of 27 incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning that resulted in 10 fatal and 78 nonfatal cases in Alabama and Texas after Hurricane Katrina and Rita, the majority of incidents were caused...

Evacuated residents

The biggest healthcare-related problem for evacuated residents was obtaining medication refills and continued care for chronic medical problems. Ordinarily, a new prescription would be provided by the original prescribing physician, and a referral (complete with past medical records) would be sent to the designated new physician. As neither original prescribing physicians nor medical records were available, a new system developed. Individual patients would arrive with empty pill bottles at...

E 115e 120e110e 115e 120e110e 115e 120e

Wind field derived from QuikSCAT during the three days. Different atmospheric conditions in PBL_MRF (boundary condition) and CUM_G (cumulus scheme) could cause an increase in latent heat flux and precipitation, but not in storm intensity, such as maximum wind speed and center pressure. However, a warmer SST (in SST_C) could result in an increase in storm intensity in addition to the increase in latent heat flux and precipitation. Model simulated precipitation and wind speed are compared...

The new demographics

A new term, Demographic Shift, has been applied to the populations changes of the greater New Orleans area following Hurricane Katrina. Initially this was a euphemism for a reduced number of African Americans living in the city, made famous (infamous ) by Mayor Ray Naggin's comments about New Orleans being a chocolate city. In fact, the population shifts were far more complex. The reported numbers are staggering, with > 75 reduction in the population of Orleans Parish (based on United States...

D xuax ln H10S

Wind velocity profiles were measured for 12 values of the centerline velocity from 6 m s to 24 m s with the resolution 0.3-0.5 cm. Each point at the velocity profile was determined by averaging over 30 sec. CD and U10 were calculated by equations (15) and (11) respectively. The obtained dependency of the surface drag coefficient on 10-m wind speed is presented in fig. 4a together with the data taken from the paper by Donelan et al, 2004. The data obtained at two different facilities are rather...

The sixth stage longterm effects

If the above analysis predicted that patient volumes would increase as the population stopped postponing basic healthcare, it is certainly interesting to follow up with what did actually happen. Unfortunately, presenting data on patient volumes is not helpful, as my practice was soon functioning at maximum capacity, and these numbers therefore do not change. What did change was the time interval to the next available appointment. At the time of the analysis, this was 1-2 weeks. By the time of...

Hurricane Ike information

Hurricane Ike was a storm that had significant impact over a wide area of the Caribbean and the US. While categorized as a Category 2 storm when it made landfall in Galveston, its size, timing, duration and the associated coastal surge had the impact of a much greater storm. Hurricane Ike formed September 1 st, 2008 and dissipated on September 16th, 2008. Highest sustained winds were reported to be 145 mph prior to landfall at Galveston. The eye of Ike passed over UTMB in the early morning...

Case study

Storm surge from Hurricane Katrina placed an oil tank facility and surrounding neighborhoods in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana under water for several days. When the water receded, it was discovered that the hurricane had dislodged a 250,000 barrel above-ground storage tank containing about 65,000 barrels of mixed crude oil (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2005b). Approximately 25,110 barrels (slightly over a million gallons) of oil spilled from the ruptured tank. The initial...

Manufacturing industry

Most events involved the manufacturing industry (65 ), however, only one injured person was associated with this industry. This is likely because there were few people in the area to be harmed, most facilities had already shut down and were operating with reduced crews and many residents evacuated the areas before the hurricanes hit (Knabb et al, 2005a Knabb et al, 2005b). The immediate contributing causal factor in over half of the events was system start-up or shut down. Most releases were...

Discussion and conclusions

Disaster preparedness plans in hospitals are indispensable for a successful completion of a hospital evacuation. Disasters like the flooding of 2002 in the Oder-Elbe-region in Germany, the South-East Asia tsunami in 2004, or the flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA during hurricane Katrina in 2005, and Galveston, Texas during hurricane Ike in 2008 has let us become aware that flood catastrophes are not only documented far away from us, but they can happen everywhere and could also occur in...

Emergency management applications of geospatial technologies

Applications of geospatial technologies for disaster management include emergency preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. Geospatial technologies could have improved the characterization of geophysical, topographical, geological, and sociological factors important for mitigating the disastrous effects of the 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12, 2010. Theilen-Willige (2010) used a GIS weighted overlay approach to produce maps representative of areas where factors...

High water Mark analyses

The passage of hurricanes often results in short-period wind waves on top of the much longer-period storm surge that couple to create various types of debris lines including vegetation, seeds, dirt, man-made trash, and dislodged building material. These debris lines can be deposited on or adhere to some surfaces after the peak water level has been reached and it begins to fall. The deposited debris typically leaves a linear feature that is referred to as a High Water Mark (HWM) and this mark...

The third stage Where are the patients

As people were eventually allowed to return to their homes, new challenges emerged to healthcare delivery. These challenges were more difficult to anticipate, and less outside assistance was provided in meeting them. The challenge to the healthcare system at this stage was primarily economic, from reduced patient volumes seen despite the reduction in the total number of hospitals. The average daily census of hospital beds in the region fell by 50 during the 4 month period after the storm, from...

Review of geospatial technologies

Geospatial technologies including GIS, RS, and GPS are increasingly used in a variety of fields where data gathering for and information about places, objects, and processes are displayed and analyzed. Each of these technologies comprises vast fields of study and research, but the integration of these technologies provides considerable descriptive, predictive, and analytical power. GIS can be described as a system comprised of software, hardware, and georeferenced geographic data used to...

The response of the healthcare industry

Absent compelling evidence to the contrary, most assumed that the census information was correct, that the population of the greater New Orleans area was significantly lower. This led to assumptions that the reduced patient volumes were permanent, causing hospitals to scramble to consolidate services and reduce operating costs. Hospital acquisitions became quite commonplace - Ochsner acquiring Memorial Hospital, Meadowcrest Hospital, Kenner Regional Hospital, and entering into operational...

The second stage an extended evacuation

Hurricane evacuations are a way of life in southern Louisiana. People grab the essentials and a few day's supplies and head out on the road, fully expecting to return in a few days time. This applies to medications as well. Katrina made landfall at the end of August, and most people renew their prescriptions on the first of each month. As such, most people evacuated with only those few pills left from their August prescriptions. When it became clear that they would not be returning to their...

Standard Normal Deviate algorithm

The Standard Normal Deviate (SND)-based incident detection algorithm (Dudek et al., 1974) was developed at the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). The SND of a variable is computed as the difference of the given variable from its mean, divided by the standard deviation of the data set. A high value for the SND of a control variable would indicate a major change in the operational conditions in the system. Lane occupancy and energy (kinetic energy) were evaluated as control variables in the...

The stan event on the Caribbean area

A tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on September 17th, 2005 was the likely precursor to Stan event (Figure 1). Cloudiness and showers associated with the system began to increase as the wave neared 50 W longitudes on September 22nd but north-northeasterly shear created an environment that was not favourable for tropical cyclone formation. The wave moved into the eastern Caribbean Sea on September 25th, while shear over the system diminished. By September 27th, deep convection...

Methods

Study area - The study area is located at 416 m elevation in the Jacanas sector, Caguana ward, Utuado, Puerto Rico (lat 18o17'07.995 N, long 66o43'57.446W NAD 83 (CONUS) CORS96). The site is in the subtropical warm wet moist forest life zone (sensu Holdridge 1967) with an annual rainfall of 2331 mm (NOAA 1998). The soil was classified as an Inceptisol and is now classified as a vertic Eutopeps, specifically Mucara clay (Lugo Lopez 1977). The Mucara soil group is a fine, montmorillonitric soil....

[ k l g j g j Cj [k l

Where hg * c is the convolution of c by the separable filter hg (i.e. convolution first along the columns by h and then convolution along the rows by g). At each scale, we have three wavelet images, ml ,m1 ,a , and each has the same size as the original image. The redundancy factor is therefore 3(J - 1) + 1 This procedure is implemented by the similar filter bank as wavelet transform just without down sampling performance. In Fig.1, a typical filter bank of undecimated wavelet transform is...

HIOCC and Patreg Algorithms

The High Occupancy (HIOCC) and Pattern Recognition (PATREG) algorithms were developed at the Transport and Road Research Laboratory in Berkshire, UK. The HIOCC algorithm is primarily a congestion detection algorithm. Slow moving or stopped vehicles are detected by using the resulting high occupancy values. Instantaneous occupancy values, at a one tenth of a second sampling rate, are smoothed using an exponential filter before employing the algorithm. The threshold is so chosen that an alarm...

Publishing Process Manager Ivana Lorkovic Technical Editor Teodora Smiljanic Cover Designer Martina Sirotic

Used under license from Shutterstock.com First published March, 2011 Printed in India A free online edition of this book is available at www.intechopen.com Additional hard copies can be obtained from orders intechweb.org Recent Hurricane Research - Climate, Dynamics, and Societal Impacts, Edited by Anthony R. Lupo IKfTC LI OPEN ACCESS in I Evil PUBLISHER

References

Hine, E. Armstrong, and N. Kuring (2002), Satellite remote sensing observations and serial photography of storm-induced neritic carbonate transport from shallow carbonate platforms, Int. J. Remote Sens., 23, 2853- 2868. Babin, S. M., J. A. Carton, T. D. Dickey, and J. D. Wiggert (2004), Satellite evidence of hurricane-induced phytoplankton blooms in an oceanic desert, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C03043, doi 03010.01029 02003JC001938. Bailey, S. W. and P. J. Werdell...

HSEES causal factors

Bad weather conditions (n 165, 67 ) were the most frequent primary causal factor contributing to hurricane-related events. Other primary causal factors were human error (n 61, 25 ), equipment failure (n 11, 4 ), and intentional release (n 8, 3 ). Of the 225 (92 ) events where a secondary causal factor was also reported, the most frequently reported were system start-up or shut down (n 120, 53 ) and power failure (n 70, 31 ). Other secondary causal factors included equipment failure (n 19, 8 ),...

East Pacific tropical cyclone activity 1970 2009

Including tropical storms, there were 656 East Pacific TC events included in the 40-year sample. This resulted in an average of 16.1 TCs per season (Table 3b, 5). This includes 298 tropical storms (7.3 per year) and 358 hurricanes (8.9 per year). As expected, the number of category 1 storms was the largest (125), and there were 166 intense storms (category 3-5), which represented 46.4 of the hurricane activity. This compares to 42.8 overall in the Atlantic Ocean basin overall. a. Atlantic Table...

Case studies

Lessons learned in case study 1 are the importance in the haste of preparing for an oncoming hurricane or responding after one occurs of adhering to important health and safety measures. Almost 25 of the 2005 hurricane victims reported to HSEES were injured in a single bus accident when oxygen tanks exploded on a bus carrying senior citizens who were being evacuated prior to Hurricane Rita. They were placed on a bus that had numerous safety violations in the haste of trying to secure a bus when...

Hurricane Katrina Induced phytoplankton bloom

Shi and Wang (2007) reported a Hurricane Katrina-induced SST cooling and a phytoplankton bloom in the Gulf of Mexico in August 2005. In their study, combined data sets of sea surface wind from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), SST from AMSR-E, and ocean color products from MODIS-Aqua are used to analyze physical, optical, and biological processes after Hurricane Katrina. MODIS-Aqua data were processed using the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm (Wang, 2007 Wang and...

Applications of geospatial technologies for hurricane disaster management

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-funded study was undertaken following Hurricane Katrina to identify successes and failures of geospatial technologies for response and recovery along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The study entitled 'Capturing Hurricane Katrina Data for Analysis and Lessons-learned Research, in tandem with the report to the President entitled 'The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina Lessons Learned, provide insight into the usefulness of geospatial...

Rdp

Vorticity Pics

Where K (u2 + v2) 2 is the kinetic energy and gh is the gravitational potential energy. By integrating (25) over the entire polar domain, we obtain which indicates that the total integrated energy is conserved in time. In an integrated sense, changes in gravitational potential energy must be balanced by equal changes in kinetic energy. By multiplying r-(2) and rewriting using the absolute angular momentum M rv + r2 2 (or the angular momentum of an air parcel due to both the vortex and Earth's...

Storm surge impact scale for coastal communities

Scientific literature contains little information that describes the incrementally destructive nature of storm surge inundations in coastal communities as the magnitude of storm surges increase. In this regard, coastal communities lack critical information that could help them improve long-and short-term decisions in preparation for storm surge inundation. With regard to long-term decision-making, such information could improve coastal planning, thereby reducing both human and economic losses...

Discussion

Our study documented both the instantaneous and short-term effects (months to years) of Hurricane Georges on litterfall mass and element fluxes of a young novel secondary forest. We first discuss six such effects of this hurricane followed by the reasons why the forest behaved as it did, and the implications of our results to the functioning of tropical forests in the hurricane belt. Effects on the Pattern of Litterfall The temporal pattern of litterfall is modified by hurricanes. The modified...

Physical processes that generate storm surge

A storm surge is defined as a dome of increased sea level height in association with the approach of an intense cyclone. Persistent onshore winds, in conjunction with reduced air pressure, force water levels to rise, especially in shallow water of impacted coasts. Although tropical or extratropical cyclones can theoretically produce storm surges in any ocean basin, tropical cyclones produce the most destructive surges in terms of extreme water-level heights and human impacts. An understanding...

Gas Dynamics Model

Kepler Simulation Lab, St Andrews House, 90 St Andrews Road, Cambridge CB4 1DL, The formation and development of hurricanes is of great importance to the forecast centers. Computer simulations essentially improved the forecasts of hurricanes and allow to model their tracks (Dudhia 1993, Grell et al. 1994, Zhang et al. 2000). The forecasts rely on monitoring real data of satellite atmospheric images (Chelton 2000), Doppler winds (Marks et al. 1992), baroclinic disturbances (Davis 2001) and...

Understanding catastrophic wind disturbance 21 Concepts

Despite extensive previous work on catastrophic wind disturbance and subsequent ecological effects, there has been no specific definition of wind disturbance. Defining catastrophic wind disturbance is difficult because wind varies within between events in intensity, size and frequency. In this review, we refer to catastrophic wind disturbance as including high wind events, mainly hurricanes, tornados, downbursts, gales and severe windstorms that may result in substantial tree damage or...

Multitemporal analyses

The assessment of a hurricane-impacted forest region and forest damage severity at regional scales has been traditionally based on a ground survey, aerial photography (Gardner et al. 1992), satellite imagery (Kovacs et al. 2001), topographic exposure models (Boose et al. 1994), or simulated by ecological models or storm models. Hurricanes frequently damage and fragment the forested landscape (Boose et al. 1994 Foster and Boose 1992), and Hurricane Katrina was no exception. Large areas of the...

Damage extent and severity model

Hurricane damage potential concepts were reviewed by researchers at the Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) the Geosystems Research Institute (GRI), the Geosciences Department, the Signal Research Center at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Identification of specific measurements used as input variables for modeling damage potential was primarily a collaborative effort among researchers...

Regrowth of surviving trees by sprouting

Regrowth plays an important role in tree recovery from catastrophic wind disturbances, especially in temperate hardwood forests. After damage by intensive winds, a high portion of hardwood trees can regrow from sprouts. Although several researchers have reported differences among species in sprouting ability in both tropical (Walker et al., 1992 Zimmerman et al., 1994 Bellingham et al., 1994) and temperate forests (Perterson & Pickett, 1991 DeCoster, 1996 Busby et al., 2009), this capability...

Jesper Ryden

Discussions on climate change are intense the following quotation, by G.H. Liljequist (1949), is valid also today The recent climatic fluctuation, which seems to embrace the whole earth, has been the object of many discussions and investigations. This is quite natural its consequences have been far-reaching and have come to influence the everyday life of man in many ways. Broadly speaking, one aspect is whether certain events, for instance storms or hurricanes, have been more common recently...

Jl U0ncos3 V0nsin3 Idq 1ndAe

V V0 (-) cos 3- U0 -) sin 3 + V1 (-)dA eikZ1 (28a) X U cos 3 + V sin 3 + X1 -)dA eikZ1 (28b) Equations for complex amplitudes & i(y) Xi(n) Vi(n) are obtained by linearization of system (26a,b), (27). (OoX - o - ( - k2j(X1V) -2 2 - 2kAe-kn(O v (29a) d2< tl - fc2 X - 2ke-k 0 (29b) We consider solutions to the system (29a,b), (30) decreasing at large distances from the surface, i.e. Boundary conditions at the water surface for the system (29a,b) follow from (20) and (21) expressed in...

Wind speed

Clearly once of the main effects of the arrival of the tail-end of hurricanes and tropical storms is severe winds, both in terms of gusts and sustained winds and this is one of the principal agents of damage associated with these events. Typical maximum recorded wind speeds on land from Western Europe for the events in this survey vary from 70km h gusts all the way up to nearly 200km h gusts with values in excess of 100km h not being uncommon. The highest recorded value of any of the events in...

The hurricane vulnerability index

In order to rank the susceptibility of coastal areas to hurricane damage we calculate a Hurricane Vulnerability Index (HVI) which is a composite of the elements that contribute to hurricane damage. Three elements contribute to the degree to which communities experience hurricane damage (1) the level of exposure, (2) physical susceptibility to the hurricane, and (3) the hurricane's frequency and intensity. Each element is comprised of several indicators that represent characteristics of risk....

A framework for understanding large infrequent catastrophic winds

Before reviewing past work, we briefly provide a conceptual framework for understanding the impact of large, infrequent catastrophic winds on temperate forests. Our proposed framework for understanding large, infrequent catastrophic winds includes the following key elements 1. The catastrophic-wind-induced changes (including changes in community structure, tree mortality, and species diversity) are complex and highly variable. In temperate forests, the most conspicuous changes caused by...

How Vertical Wind Shear Affects Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change An Overview

Over the last 30 years tropical cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts, for various (yet somewhat puzzling) reasons, have not achieved near the level of improvement of the TC track forecast. Although TCs have been studied intensively throughout the twentieth century, the community has surprisingly little quantitative knowledge as to how these storms interact with their environments, particularly with respect to changes in core structure (Frank & Ritchie, 1999). Rogers et al. (2006) stated that the...

Airsea Interaction under Hurricane Wind Conditions

Wind Driven Rain Drag Coefficient

Yuliya Troitskaya, Daniil Sergeev, Alexander Kandaurov and Vasilii Kazakov Institute of Applied Physics Russia One of the main characteristics appearing in the models of forecasting wind over the sea is the roughness of the sea surface determined by the parameters of the wind waves, quantitatively parameterised by the sea surface drag coefficient CD. To define it we introduce the turbulent shear stress or turbulent momentum flux far from the sea surface where p is the air density, u* is the...

Longterm effects on species composition and diversity

Hurricane Composition

A widely accepted view among forest ecologists is that severe hurricanes have relatively minor long-term effects on species composition and diversity in tropical forest regions and coastal temperate regions where hurricanes are common. Many case studies in the tropics, including studies in Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and Kolombangara, support this general conclusion (but see Vandermeer, 2000). For example, Burslem and others (2000) found that historical hurricanes had only limited effects...

Yft fnfn t vtyn

Same as Fig. 10 but for northward track type from October to January. M < < WWVsNJ -ss f r y M < < WWVsNJ -ss f r y Fig. 13. Same as Fig. 10 but for northward track type from October to January. The wind fields display the corresponding circulation flow and potential effective local weather systems. In this study, the West Pacific Subtropical High of winter-time may be the critical modulator of TC tracks in this region, specifically during post-winter-monsoon period. Moreover,...

Methods of analysis

The simplest and widely known technique to investigate common periodicities between two series of data is the Fourier Transform, the Fast Fourier transform and Regression Analysis. However, while useful for stationary time series, these methods are not the best for time series that are not of stationary nature ((35) (116), (117)), as those analyzed in this work. A nice description of the limitations and drawbacks of Fourier Analysis, (including the short-time-Garbor or the windowed Fourier...

Factors that influence hurricane damage costs

Most damage from hurricanes is caused by high winds and storm surge, which is the water that a hurricane's wind pushes toward shore. A major hurricane, which would be a category 3, 4, or 5 on the Saffir Sampson Hurricane Scale, has winds that exceed 110 miles per hour. A storm surge of up to twenty-eight feet above average sea level was recorded in Mississippi during Katrina (Masters, 2010). If the storm surge is accompanied with high tide, the damage is even greater. Three interacting elements...

The hurricane Ike evacuation

UTMB emergency management officials and executive leadership began tracking hurricane Ike late in the week of September 1st, and participating in the Texas Division of Emergency Management State Operations Center conference calls with the National Weather Service (NWS) on Sunday September 7th. Predicted paths varied from the lower Rio Grande Valley to the Florida panhandle early on, but it was assumed that a Texas landfall was likely. By Tuesday it was felt that the storm track would make...

INTECH open

Free online editions of InTech Books and Journals can be found at www.intechopen.com Part 1 Climatology and Climatological Factors 1 Chapter 1 The Interannual and Interdecadal Variability in Hurricane Activity 3 Chapter 2 Influence of Cosmophysical Phenomena and African Dust on Hurricanes Genesis 41 Jorge Perez-Peraza, Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera and Igor Libin Chapter 4 The Effects of Space Weather on Hurricane Activity 85 Chapter 5 Hurricane Intensity, Sea Surface Temperature, and...

Scales

Catastrophic wind damage and subsequent forest recovery are scale-dependent phenomena and both spatial and temporal scales are important in understanding effects of catastrophic winds. As Levin (1992) pointed out, no single mechanism explains pattern on all scales. Consequently, it is essential to clarify both the spatial and temporal scale over which wind damage and recovery patterns occur and are examined. Windstorms are often distributed over a broad range of spatial scales, and certain...

Coherence analysis of terrestrial and cosmophysical forcings

Data.- To assess the long-term relations between space phenomena and indicators of the global climate it is often necessary to use reconstructions of Galactic Cosmic Rays (CR), solar activity (SS) and climate phenomena. Direct measurements of solar activity based on sunspot numbers exist since 1749, but trustable CR data is only available since the 1950s decade when the neutron Monitor Stations began to operate. Records of climatic phenomena exist from the end of the 19th century. For the AMO...

Bogus data assimilation

To better define the vortex structure in hurricane initial conditions, a bogus data assimilation (BDA) scheme is developed in the WRF-Var. The BDA algorithm includes a) bogus vortex construction and error specification, and b) assimilation of the bogus data with the WRF-Var system. In our studies (Xiao et al., 2006 2009b Zhang et al., 2007), the bogus vortex is constructed according to the method of Ueno (1989 1995). There are two components (symmetric and asymmetric) in the bogus observations....

Atlantic hurricanes

Hurricanes are considered one of the most astonishing meteorological phenomena in our planet. Strong winds, clouds of great size and intense storms unite to advance for the ocean and to reach mainland, razing with everything to their passage, fallen trees, damages in buildings, changes in the natural landscape and, fatal victims, are alone some of the consequences that these unpredictable events can generate. Due to the great intensity that they reach, with winds that can overcome the 350 km...

SAR images segmentation based on undecimated wavelet transform and mean shift

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been a useful tool in domains such as disaster detection, cartography and crop monitoring. The images usually have inferior illumination quality mainly due to different type of environmental distributions. So the segmentation of different land covered regions is an important but difficult step in SAR image processing. It is also significant to understand how information changes over different scales of SAR image. Undecimated wavelet transform is good in...

WDM6 MAR 72 h

Fields of maximum snow and graupel contents in the WDM6 simulations at t 72 h. Fig. 19. Fields of maximum snow and graupel contents in the WDM6 simulations at t 72 h. Results obtained using the first simulations of landfalling hurricanes and developing tropical depressions using spectral bin microphysics are quite encouraging. The utilization of SBM based on solving microphysical equations showed significant potential for both further investigation of physical processes in tropical...