Henhouse Ebooks Catalog
High heat load (and environmental stress in general) has the potential for detrimental effects on susceptible animals. The negative effects on health, growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, tissue deposition, milk yield, health status, reproduction, and egg production are well documented (Brody 1956 El-Fouley et al. 1976 Biggers et al. 1987 Fuquay 1981 Johnson 1987 Nienaber et al. 1987a, b Hahn et al. 1990, 1993 Liao and Veum 1994 Valtorta and Maciel 1998 Mader et al. 1999a, b Nienaber et al. 1999, 2001 West 1999 Hansen et al. 2001 Wolfenson et al. 2001 Yalchin et al. 2001 Valtorta et al. 2002 Kerr et al. 2003 Faurie et al. 2004 Gaughan et al. 2004 Holt et al. 2004 Mader and Davis 2004 Kerr et al. 2005 Huynh et al. 2005 Wettemann and Bazer 1985). However, the actual numerical impacts are unknown. Furthermore genetic change in livestock animals especially in regards to increase productivity has resulted in animals that more likely to be susceptible to the negative impacts of heat...
They are at greatest risk of being exposed to the disease. Several countries have adopted preventive measures like placing roofs or nets over chicken pens to keep domestic fowl from coming into contact with migratory birds. It is also advisable that this information could be disseminated through other communication channels such as the media, community leaders, nongovernmental organizations, and policy-makers. The second objective is to adopt and adapt the following key messages and information for local dissemination and use.
Breeding takes place in at least four areas the Bellingshausen Sea, the Brans-field Strait, Davis Strait, and in the vicinity of South Georgia Island. We do not know whether there is a main breeding area in the Pacific Sector or how many breeding stocks there are. A female krill produces from as few as 500 eggs to as many as 8,000 eggs (average of 2,500) per brood with a brood interval of 6.5 days. The spawning season lasts two months, yielding an annual egg production of 22,000 eggs per season per female (Ross and Quetin, 1983). Early larval stages readily become acclimatized to high pressure conditions of up to 200 atm., while adult krill, including gravid females, are sensitive to pressure and can acclimatize only to 20 atm. Spawning cannot therefore occur at depths greater than 200 m. Krill egg development is also influenced by temperature but not by salinity or hydrostatic pressure.
In Cuba organizing the needs of different farmer groups should have to be planned scientifically by very well trained levels of intermediaries because of farmers' misunderstandings of limitations of modern technologies. Client friendliness was a determining factor in Cuba in the capacity building involved and differentiation within the groups of farmers helped much in getting information absorbed broadly. Successful examples from Cuba again contain a clear-cut farming system, that of sugar production and the highly needed guidance of large scale planting operations by a successful agrometeorological service in forecasting of suitable sowing conditions. Higher sugar production and better cost benefit ratios resulted and intermediaries now bring such sowing information to various farmers also as agrometeorological services for other crops. Another example from Cuba is the calculation and use of comfort indexes in the poultry industry and related agrometeorological information used to...
Badejo and Van Straalen (1992) tested the effects of atrazine on the growth and reproduction of the collembolan Orchesella cincta. The lethal concentration (LC50) for atrazine was estimated at 224 g g atrazine in food. Mortality and molting frequency increased with increasing concentrations of atrazine. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) on egg production of O. cincta was 40 g g. Based on data for five collembolan species, 2.7 g g was estimated to be the hazardous concentration for 5 of soil invertebrates, which corresponds to the recommended field rate of 2.5 g g. House et al. (1987) investigated the impact of seven herbicides on miroarthropods and decomposition. No effect of any herbicide was observed on numbers of microarthropods, but decomposition of wheat straw was more rapid in soils without than with herbicide.
The US livestock industry has undergone dramatic changes in the last 20 years 5 . The livestock and poultry industry tends to have fewer, but larger and more intensive specialized operations, which results in more concentrated manure and other animal wastes. This can lead to a significant increase in the contaminants in the watercourses in industrial operational areas. Wastes may be more concentrated in nonagricultural areas where there is inadequate land to accommodate the application of the manure (e.g., as a fertilizer).
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