Technologies that have been used to treat groundwater and soil contaminated with oxygenates include air sparging, SVE, MPE, in situ bioremediation, ISCO, groundwater extraction, above-ground treatment (i.e., pump-and-treat or drinking water treatment), and phytoremediation. Aboveground treatment for extracted groundwater includes technologies such as air stripping, activated carbon, chemical oxidation, and bioremediation. Air sparging, SVE, and MPE rely generally on the use of air flow to remove contaminants. Bioremediation and ISCO rely on biological and chemical reactions to destroy MTBE and other oxygenates, while pump-and-treat and drinking water treatment rely primarily on physical and chemical parameters to separate MTBE and oxygenates from water. Other discussed technologies, such as phytoremediation, in situ thermal treatment, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), have also been used at sites contaminated with oxygenates, although less often at the sites in U.S. EPA's MTBE database. Nontreatment remedies that have been used include excavation, free product recovery, monitored natural attenuation (MNA), and institutional controls (ICs). Additional sources of information that discuss treatment of MTBE using multiple technologies include Refs [27,28].
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