Sources of Process Waste

Emissions

The most significant emissions from BOF steel-making occur during the oxygen blow period. The predominant compounds emitted are iron oxides (including FeO and Fe2O3), although heavy metals are also present. Tapping emissions include iron oxides, sulfur oxides, and other metallic oxides, depending on the grade of scrap used. Hot metal transfer emissions are mostly iron oxides.6,14 The particulate-laden combustion gases and fume (a very fine iron oxide containing high and variable amounts of zinc) released during oxygen blow periods are removed from the furnace by evacuation through a large collection main. The BOF gas, consisting mainly of CO, leaves the BOF at a temperature of between 1600 to 1800°C. Most of the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) generated in the BOF are heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel.1 Standard

Iron

Desulfurization _

Dust/ Slag sludge

Dust/ Slag sludge

Slag

Steel

Slag

Emission control dust/sludge (K061)

Continuous casting

Continuous casting

FIGURE 2.5 Flow diagram of steel-making process. (From U.S. EPA, Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry, EPA 310-R-95-005, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1995.)

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