All phases of the EAF operation result in primary or secondary emissions. Primary emissions include those produced during EAF melting and refining operations, whereas secondary emissions are from charging, tapping, and escape of fumes. The major constituents in EAF emissions are par-ticulate matter and gases (carbon monoxide, SO,, and NO-,). Carbon monoxide is produced in large quantities in the EAF from oxygen lancing and slag foaming activities as well as from the use of pig iron or DRI in the charge. Large amounts of CO and hydrogen are generated at the start of meltdown
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