Sources of Oxygenates in the Environment

Oxygenates have been widely used in the United States for the past several decades as an additive to gasoline intended either to boost octane ratings or to reduce air pollution. A significant proportion of more than 100 billion gal of gasoline used in the United States annually has contained MTBE and other oxygenates at >10% by volume. The volume of MTBE, ethanol, and other oxygenates used in RFG and Oxyfuel in 1997 was estimated to be about 11 million, 2 million, and 700,000 gallons, respectively.8 The gasoline containing these oxygenates is stored in ASTs and USTs at a wide range of facilities, including refineries, terminals, service stations, and by end users; gasoline has been transported throughout the United States via pipeline, barge, rail, and truck. There are an estimated 3.7 million USTs in the United States, including 700,000 regulated gasoline USTs at approximately 250,000 facilities and approximately 3 million underground fuel storage tanks that are exempt from federal regulations (e.g., certain farm and residential and home heating oil tanks).5 Gasoline has been released to the environment through spills and leaks from ASTs and USTs, as well as from manufacturing, storage, and transport operations.

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DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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