Screening is generally used to remove coarse particles in the influent. There are different screening pores ranging from a few micrometers (termed as microscreen) to more than 100 mm (termed as coarse screen). Coarse screen openings are between 6 and 150 mm whereas fine screen openings are below 6 mm. Smaller openings can have better removal efficiencies; however, operational problems such as clogging and higher head loss are always observed.

Fine screens are often used, of which the medium is generally stainless steel material. Velocity, selection of screen openings, and head loss through the screens are the main parameters in the design. Clean operations and waste disposal must be considered. The design capacity of fine screens can be as high as 0.13 m3/s; the head loss ranges from 0.8 to 1.4 m. Depending on the design and operation, the 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and SS removal efficiencies are 5-50% and 5-45%, respectively.9,10

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