Regulatory Standards

The standards include full operation and management requirements for permitted facilities (new) and less stringent provisions for interim status facilities (existing). The TSDF standards require facilities to comply with

1. General facility standards

2. Preparedness and prevention requirements

3. Contingency plans and emergency procedure provisions

4. Manifest, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements.

TSDFs owners and operators can treat, store, or dispose of waste in a variety of units. Each unit has its own specific standards governing unit design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Owners and operators can manage their waste in any of the following units2:

1. Containers

2. Containment buildings

4. Land treatment units

5. Landfills (Figure 12.4)

6. Surface impoundments (Figure 12.5)

7. Tanks

8. Waste piles (Figure 12.6)

9. Miscellaneous units.

Drip pad Wood products

Drip pad Wood products

www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/rom1.pdf.)"/>
FIGURE 12.3 Cross section of a drip pad. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, RCRA Orientation Manual, www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/rom1.pdf.)
www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/roml.pdf.)"/>
FIGURE 12.4 Cross section of a landfill. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, RCRA Orientation Manual, www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/roml.pdf.)

LQGs accumulating waste in containers, containment buildings, drips pads, and tanks are subject to the interim status TSDF standards for these units. SQGs accumulating waste in containers and tanks are subject to the interim status standards for these units.

The TSDF standards also establish requirements to ensure that hazardous waste management units are closed in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The closure provisions require the facility to stop accepting waste; remove all waste from management units; and decontaminate all soils, structures, and equipment. Some units (i.e., land treatment units, landfills, and surface impoundments) serve as places for the final disposal of hazardous waste. These land disposal units must comply with additional postclosure requirements to ensure proper long-term unit maintenance.

Because closure and postclosure activities can be very expensive, the TSDF standards require owners and operators to demonstrate financial assurance. These provisions also require all TSDFs to set aside funds in order to compensate third parties for bodily injury and property damage that might result from hazardous waste management operations.

RCRA's TSDF standards also include provisions to protect groundwater and air resources from hazardous waste contamination. RCRA requires owners and operators of land-based units (i.e., land treatment units, landfills, surface impoundments, and waste piles) to monitor the groundwater below their TSDF for possible contamination, and clean up any discovered contamination.

In order to protect air resources, TSDFs are required to install unit controls to prevent organic emissions from escaping into the air. The air emission controls apply to process vents, equipment leaks, containers, surface impoundments, and tanks.

Groundwater Double liner leachate collection Dike or berm

Groundwater Double liner leachate collection Dike or berm"/>
FIGURE 12.5 Cross section of a surface impoundment. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, RCRA Orientation Manual,
www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/rom1.pdf.)"/>
FIGURE 12.6 Cross section of a waste pile. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, RCRA Orientation Manual, www.epa. gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/orientat/rom1.pdf.)

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