Evaluate the following equipment and/or process changes, from the standpoint of environment and safety, which could reduce wastes:
1. Reduction in transfer distances between raw material storage and process and between individual unit operations
2. Improvements in materials handling equipment (conveyors, pumps, transfer points)
3. Improved process control (monitoring and instrumentation); more automation
4. Replacement of batch operations with continuous flow or optimized sequencing of batch operations
5. Waste segregation
6. Introduction of water reuse technology or sequential water reuse. Determine financial implications of equipment/process modification:
1. Determine investment costs
2. Revise operating costs
3. Determine financial implications of options evaluated above
Source: From UNIDO, Project Document, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Industrial Sectors and Environment Division, Vienna, Austria, April 1995.
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