Energy use per ton of cast steel: ingot castinga, 2.78 X 106 Btu Continuous casting, 0.29 X 106 Btu
Largest source: teeming into molds
Sources: vacuum degassing, Mill scale, sludge continuous casting cooling water
Typical wastewater volume per ton of steel Degassing: 25 gal Continuous casting: <25 gal
Particulate: iron and other oxides
Source: From Energetics, Inc., Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry, D0E/EE-0229,
U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 2000. a Includes soaking pits.
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