188.8.131.52 Rinse Elimination
The rinse between a soak cleaner and an electrocleaner may be eliminated if the two baths are compatible.
Low-concentration plating solutions reduce the total mass of chemicals being dragged-out. The mass of chemicals removed from a bath is a function of the solution concentration and the volume of solution carried from the bath. Traditionally, the bath concentration is maintained at a midpoint within a range of operating conditions. With the high cost of replacement, treatment, and disposal of dragged-out chemicals, the economics of low-concentration baths are favorable.
As an illustration, a typical nickel plating operation with five nickel tanks has an annual nickel drag-out of about 10,000 L. Assuming the nickel baths are maintained at the midpoint operating concentration, as shown in Table 9.12, the annual cost of chemical replacement, treatment, and disposal is about USD 20,700 in terms of 2007 USD. If the bath is converted to the modified operating condition as shown in the table, the annual cost of chemical replacement, treatment, and disposal are approximately USD 18,700, a savings of about USD 2000/yr. Generally, any percent
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You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.