Semifinished steel shapes (slabs, billets, blooms) Process cooling, rinsing, and cleaning water
Cleaned steel products (e.g., sheets, plates, bars, pipe) Process wastewater containing mill scale, oils, other pollutants, and low levels of metals Wastewater sludge Air pollution control (APC) dust Spent pickle liquor (K062) Spent pickle liquor rinse water sludge
Pickling acids Molten salts Alkaline cleaners Fuel
Electricity Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen
Source: From U.S. EPA, Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry, EPA 310-R-95-005, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1995.
gives the major inputs and outputs for steel sheet, a typical steel product. The key environmental and energy facts of forming and finishing are presented in Table 2.15.
2.7.2 Sources of Process Waste
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