The first class of combustion units is hazardous waste incinerators. Incineration is the combustion of hazardous waste primarily for destruction (i.e., disposal). It is a method of thermal destruction of primarily organic hazardous waste using controlled flame combustion (Figure 12.9). This process can reduce large volumes of waste materials to ash and lessen toxic gaseous emissions. An incinerator is an enclosed device that uses controlled flame combustion and does not meet the more specific criteria for classification as a boiler, industrial furnace, sludge dryer (a unit that dehydrates hazardous sludge), or carbon regeneration unit (a unit that regenerates spent activated carbon). Incinerators also include infrared incinerators (a unit that uses electric heat followed by a controlled flame afterburner) and plasma arc incinerators (a unit that uses electrical discharge followed by a controlled flame afterburner).

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