Craig R Worden Gregory T Kleinheinz and Todd R Sandrin


11.1 Biological Functions of Heavy Metals 409

11.2 Microbial Response to Metals 410

11.2.1 Genome-Based Approaches to Investigating Microbial

Metal Resistance Mechanisms 412

11.3 Effect of Metals on Microbial Processes 412

11.3.1 Metals and General Soil Microbiological Processes 412

11.3.2 Metals and Bioremediation 415

11.4 Metal Speciation 416

11.4.1 Measurement of Bioavailable Metal Species 417

11.4.2 Effect of Medium Composition on Metal Speciation and Toxicity 417

11.4.3 Effect of pH on Metal Speciation and Toxicity 419

11.5 Strategies to Mitigate Deleterious Effects of Metals on Microorganisms 420

11.6 Summary and Future Directions for Research 422

References 423

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