Contents

2.1 Introduction 38

2.2 Industrial Processes in the Iron and Steel Industry 38

2.3 Coke Making 38

2.3.1 Process Description 38

2.3.2 Sources of Process Wastes 40

2.3.3 Treatment Techniques 43

2.4 Ironmaking 44

2.4.1 Process Description 44

2.4.2 Sources of Process Waste 46

2.4.3 Treatment Techniques 48

2.5 Steel Making 49

2.5.1 Basic Oxygen Furnace Process 49

2.5.2 Electric Arc Furnace 53

2.6 Refining and Casting 56

2.6.1 Process Description 56

2.6.2 Sources of Process Waste 58

2.6.3 Treatment Techniques 59

2.7 Forming and Finishing 59

2.7.1 Process Overview 59

2.7.2 Sources of Process Waste 62

2.7.3 Treatment Techniques 64

2.8 Pollution Prevention Measures 65

2.8.1 High-Rate Recycle 66

2.8.2 Countercurrent Cascade Rinsing 66

2.8.3 Acid Reuse, Recycle, and Recovery Systems 66

2.8.4 Extension of Process Solution Life 67

2.9 Process Modifications 67

2.9.1 Effluent-Free Pickling Process with Fluid Bed Hydrochloric

Acid Regeneration 67

2.9.2 Nitric-Acid-Free Pickling 68

2.9.3 Effluent-Free Exhaust Cleaning 68

2.9.4 Elimination of Coke with Cokeless Technologies 68

2.9.5 Reducing Coke Oven Emissions 68

References 69

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