Characteristics Of Injected Hazardous Wastes

This section discusses the characteristics of hazardous wastes typically injected into Class I injection wells. It includes the following:

1. The properties that define a waste as hazardous

2. The sources, amounts, and composition of existing deep-well-injected hazardous wastes

3. Trends and distribution of industrial and hazardous waste injection

4. The design and construction of deep-injection wells

20.2.1 Identifying Hazardous Wastes

Wastes are defined as hazardous for the purposes of regulatory control in 40 CFR Part 261.4 In this regulation, wastes are classified as hazardous either by being listed in tables within the regulation or by meeting certain specified characteristics. Thus, under 40 CFR Part 261 hazardous wastes are known either as "listed" or "characteristic" wastes. Some listed wastestreams, such as spent halogenated solvents, come from many industries and processes. Other listed wastestreams, such as American Petroleum Institute (API) separator sludges from the petroleum-refining industry, come from one particular industry and one process. A characteristic waste is not listed, but is classified as hazardous because it exhibits one or more of the following characteristics4,5:

1. Toxicity to living organisms

2. Reactivity

3. Corrosivity

4. Ignitability

Listed wastes also exhibit one or more of these characteristics. The significance of each of the characteristics listed above is discussed below and is summarized in Table 20.1.3 Deep-well-injected

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