Asphalt concrete is primarily used as a structural pavement surface constructed over a subgrade and a subbase. It is designed to support the traffic load and distribute the load over the roadbed. Asphalt concrete pavements can be constructed using hot mix or cold mix asphalt. Hot mix asphalt is a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate with asphalt cement binder that is mixed, placed, and compacted in a heated condition. Cold mix asphalt is a mixture of emulsified asphalt and aggregate, produced, placed, and compacted at ambient air temperature. Cold mix asphalt pavement usually requires an overlay of hot mix asphalt or surface treatment to resist traffic action.
Aggregates used in asphalt concrete mixtures comprise ~95% of the mix by mass and ~80% by volume. Thus, the aggregate material(s) used in asphalt concrete have a profound influence on the properties and performance of the mixture. Proper aggregate grading, strength, toughness, and shape are needed for improving final product uses. Table 4.17 provides a list of standard test methods that are used to assess the suitability of aggregates for use in asphalt paving applications.
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You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.