Mineral surfaces on which adsorption may occur are diverse and complex, and the mechanisms by which a hazardous constituent may attach to the solid surface vary substantially. Therefore, theoretical models that can be used readily to predict adsorption for a variety of compounds over a range of conditions are difficult to develop. Table 20.18 summarizes the applicability of three major methods for predicting adsorption in the deep-well environment. These methods include the following:

1. Adsorption isotherms

2. The clay ion-exchange model

3. The triple-layer model

Adsorption isotherms

The simplest and most widely used method for predicting adsorption is to measure adsorption isotherms (the variations in the amount of a substance adsorbed at different concentrations measured at a constant temperature). Empirical constants can be calculated from such measurements.

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