Hazardous Wastes

Treatment of Battery Manufacturing Wastes

Aircraft Ion Battery Construction

Hawumba, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang 32.1 Introduction 32.1.1 Historical, Cultural, and Battery Technology Development 1303 32.2 Overview of the Manufacturing Process 32.2.1 Manufacturing Process 32.3 Battery Chemical Systems 32.3.1 Battery Classification 32.4 Description of Battery Subcategories in the Battery Industry of 32.4.2 Subcategory A Cadmium 32.4.3 Subcategory C Lead 32.4.4 Subcategory D Leclanche 32.4.5 Subcategory G Zinc Battery 32.4.6 Subcategory E Lithium Battery...

Typical Physical Properties of Nonferrous Slags

Black, glassy, more vesicular when granulated Reddish brown to brown-black, massive, angular, amorphous texture 3500 0.37 Black to red, glassy, sharp angular (cubical) particles Source From MNR, Mineral Aggregate Conservation, Reuse and Recycling, report for Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada, February 1992. JEGEL, Manitoba Slags, Deposits, Characterization, Modifications, Potential Utilization, report, John Emery Geotechnical Engineering Limited, Toronto, Ontario, 1986....

Control of Hazardous Gas Emission

EPA, the techniques that are used to control air pollution include the following15 1. Covering surface impoundments 2. Passive perimeter gas control systems 3. Active perimeter gas control systems 4. Active interior gas collection recovery systems Covering surface impoundments is important for the control of hazardous gases emission. A common covering method places a barrier at the water-air interface to reduce gaseous emissions. The technology available includes lagoon...

Hazardous Waste Combustion

Rcra Haz Waste Concentrations

A large number of TSDFs use combustion, the controlled burning of substances in an enclosed area, as a means of treating and disposing of hazardous waste. Approximately 11 of the hazardous non-wastewater generated in the United States in 1999 was treated using combustion. As a hazardous waste management practice, combustion has several unique attributes. First, if properly conducted, it permanently destroys toxic organic compounds contained in hazardous waste by breaking their chemical bonds...

Introduction

Phase Tasks

Site contamination generally results from leakage, spillage, or disposal of industrial wastes, and can arise from the past uncontrolled disposal of chemical wastes or any recent negligence. Contaminated sites are a threat to human beings by the following means of contamination 1. Contact with contaminated soil 2. Inhalation of evaporated toxic gases 3. Drinking of contaminated groundwater 4. Consumption intake of a secondary contaminant, for example, by eating contaminated crops or livestocks...

Ntroduction

Www Epa Gov Radon Zonemap Html

Radon is a naturally occurring, chemically inert, radioactive gas. It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It is part of the uranium-238 decay series, the direct decay product of radium-226. Radon moves to the earth's surface through tiny openings and cracks in soil and rocks. High concentrations of radon can be found in soils derived from uranium-bearing rocks, such as pitchblende and some phosphates, granites, shales, and limestones. It may be found also in soils contaminated with certain...

Geochemical Properties of Listed Metals and Nonmetals

Geochemical Periodic Table

Oxides and hydrous oxides Precipitation Cr is very mobile in neutral to alkaline conditions. As is more mobile under anaerobic than aerobic conditions and in alkaline conditions. Pb2+2 is relatively immobile except in highly acidic environments. Cd, Cr(IV), Hg, Ni, Se. Cr + organic material insoluble (aerobic conditions) precipitates. Cr(III) hydroxide, carbonate, and sulfide precipitate (pH 6) Cr(VI) does not precipitate in these conditions. Pb typically precipitates as Pb(OH)2, PbCO3,...

Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention

Minimization Hazardous Products

This plant has already implemented the following techniques to manage and minimize its wastes 1. The polymer previously used by this plant as a flocculent in the on-site wastewater treatment system has been replaced by magnesium hydroxide in order to reduce the volume of sludge generated and shipped off-site. 2. An acid regeneration system has been installed to regenerate spent pickle liquor for reuse on-site. The type of waste currently generated by the plant, the source of the waste, the...

Forming And Finishing 271 Process Overview

Hazardous Waste Process Flow Denr

In forming operations the ingots, slabs, billets, and blooms obtained after casting are further processed to produce strip, sheets, plate, bar, rod, or other structural shapes through various hot forming and sometimes cold forming operations, depending on the final product. In hot forming operations, preheated (typically in the range of 1800 F), solidified steel is reduced in cross-section through a series of forming steps by applying mechanical pressure through work rolls to produce...

Introduction And Background

For many years a large part of industrial pollution control has been carried out essentially on an end-of-pipe basis, and a wide range of unit processes (physical, chemical, and biological) have been developed to service the needs of the industry. Such end-of-pipe systems range from low intensity to high intensity arrangements, from low technology to high technology, and from low cost to high cost. Most end-of-pipe systems are destructive processes in that they provide no return to the...

Source Of Radon And Its Control 3121 Source of Radon

Radon Resistant Constructions Plans

Radon gas is the result of the radioactive decay of radium-226, an element that can be found in varying concentrations throughout many soils and bedrock. Figure 31.1 shows the series of elements that begins with uranium-238, and, after undergoing a series of radioactive decays, leads eventually to lead-210. At the time radium decays to become radon gas, energy is released.9 Of all the elements MAP 31.3 New York state map of radon zones. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, EPA Map of Radon Zones,...

Boilers and Industrial Furnaces

Furnace Industrial Definition

The second class of combustion units is BIFs. Boilers are used to recover energy from hazardous waste, whereas industrial furnaces are used primarily to recover material values. U.S. EPA defines boilers as enclosed devices that use controlled flame combustion to recover and export energy in the form of steam, heated fluid, or heated gases. A boiler comprises two main parts, the combustion chamber used to heat the hazardous waste and the tubes or pipes that hold the FIGURE 12.9 Cross section of...

Summary of Radon Concentrations in Us Epa New Construction Projects

Radon Resistant Constructions Plans

No. of Barrier Only Passive Active Project EPA-VA1 10 14.5 6.0 < 1 EPA-NY1 15 15.8 13.9 2.8 EPA-VA2 2 1.3 < 1 < 1 EPA-PA1 1 13.4 7.0 1.1 Source Adapted from U.S. EPA, Radon-Resistant Construction Techniques for New Residential Construction Technical Guidance, EPA 625 2-91 032, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, February 1991. radon-laden soil gases move from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Most buildings tend to maintain themselves at an air...

Hazardous Wastes

Spent pickle liquor is considered a hazardous waste (K062) because it contains considerable residual acidity and high concentrations of dissolved iron salts. For example, spent pickle liquor and waste acid from the production of stainless steel is considered hazardous. The hazardous constituents in K062 are lead, nickel, and hexavalent chromium. Waste pickle liquor sludge generated by lime stabilization of spent pickle liquor is not considered hazardous unless it exhibits one or more of the...

MACT Standards under the CAA

Hazardous waste burning incinerators, cement kilns, and lightweight aggregate kilns (LWAKs), hereafter referred to as MACT combustion units, must also comply with emission limitations. The MACT emission standards are found under the CAA regulations. Instead of using operating requirements as a way of ensuring that the unit meets the performance standards, owners or operators of combustion units subject to MACT standards may use a pollution control technology to achieve the stringent numerical...

Emission Standards For Combustors

EPA promulgated action plans for the removal of hazardous substances from the environment by reducing air pollutants from HWCs. U.S. EPA's NESHAPs28,29 achieve significant long-term ecological and human health benefits without imposing significant regulatory burdens on HWCs. The NESHAPs were issued by U.S. EPA for air quality protection from HWCs. The standards implement a section of the CAA by requiring HWCs to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of the MACT.30 The...

Gloria Sanchez Galvan and Eugenia J Olguin contents

10.1 Introduction 10.2 Rhizofiltration 10.3 Constructed Wetlands and Lagoons 10.3.1 Lagoons with Free-Floating Plants 10.3.2 Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands 10.3.3 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands 10.4 Bioadsorbents-Based 10.5 Conclusions References Surface water and groundwater may become contaminated with hazardous compounds as a consequence of natural and human activities. Pollutants of concern are both inorganic (heavy metals, radionuclides, nitrogen, phosphorous, etc.) and organic...

Lawrence K Wang Nazih K Shammas Donald B Aulenbach and William A Selke

6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Nickel-Chromium Plating Process 6.2.1 Nickel Plating 6.2.2 Chromium Plating 6.3 Sources of Pollution 6.3.1 Environmental Impact of Nickel 6.3.2 Environmental Impact of Chromium 6.4 Waste Minimization 6.4.1 Assessment of Hazardous Waste 6.4.2 Improved Procedures and Segregation of Wastes 6.4.3 Material Substitution 6.4.4 Extending Process Bath Life 6.4.5 Dragout Reduction 6.4.6 Reactive Rinses 6.5 Material Recovery and Recycling 6.5.1 Dragout Recovery 6.5.2 Evaporative...

Feasibility STUDY

Conceptual Site Model Example

Scoping is the initial planning phase of site remediation and is a part of the funding allocation and planning process.12 Scoping of the RI FS comprises the following steps 2. Developing the conceptual site model 3. Identifying the initial project operable unit, likely response scenarios, and remedial action objects 4. Initiating potential federal state ARARs identification 5. Identifying initial data quality objectives There are 12 tasks involved in project planning 1. Conducting project...

Communications and Deliverables during Scoping

For lead agency and contractor to identify actions that will abate immediate threat to public health or prevent further degradation of the environment to obtain concurrence of support agency For lead agency and contractor to improve focus of RI and reduce time and cost to obtain concurrence of support agency For lead agency and contractor to confirm need for FS for lead agency and contractor to plan data collection to obtain support agency review and concurrence For contractor to obtain lead...

Nazih K Shammas and Lawrence K Wang

Classification Triangulaire Des Sols

26.1 Overview of Regulations for Hazardous Waste 26.1.1 Double Liners and LCRSs 26.1.2 Leak Detection Systems 26.1.3 Closure and Final Cover 26.1.4 Construction Quality Assurance 26.1.5 Summary of Minimum Technology Requirements 26.2 Liner Design Clay Liners 26.2.1 Materials 26.2.2 Clay Liners versus Composite Liners 26.2.3 Darcy's Law, Dispersion, and Diffusion 26.2.4 Laboratory Tests for Hydraulic Conductivity 26.2.5 Field Hydraulic Conductivity Testing 26.2.6 Field Tests versus Laboratory...

Panel Fabrication

Landfill Sump Design

The final design aspect to consider is the FML panel layout of the facility. Three factors should be considered when designing an FML panel layout5 30 1. Seams should run up and down on the slope, not horizontally. 2. The field seam length should be minimized whenever possible. 3. There should be no penetration of an FML below the top of the waste. FIGURE 26.20 Panel-seam identification scheme. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, Requirements for Hazardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction, and Closure,...

Technical Implementability

As they are unconventional materials, foundry solid waste lacks documented procedures qualifying its substitution for conventional materials, which is a primary barrier in the reuse program. Necessary procedures therefore include evaluation tests, assessment procedures, and criteria to address the technical performance and characteristics that a functional material shall present. A procedural framework needs to be outlined with which one can decide if a waste or byproduct material can be used...

References

Wright, R.J., Take a new look at sand reclamation, Foundry Management and Technology, 3, 22-24, 2001. 2. Leidel, D.S., Pollution Prevention and Foundries, in Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freedman, H. M., Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984. 3. WMRC, Primary Metal, Illinois Waste Management and Research Centre, available at http www. 4. AFS, Alternative Utilization of Foundry Waste Sand, final report (Phase I) for Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs, American...

Masonry Walls with Termite Caps Solid Blocks and Filled Block Tops

Builders may construct a foundation wall with solid, filled, or sealed block tops for several reasons, including termite-proofing, energy conservation, distribution of weight of the structure, and radon resistance. The NCMA28 recommends that a solid or grouted top course be installed to distribute the loads of joists and beams. Some building codes require solid tops to block hidden termite entry. In spite of this, the block tops in many residences are left open except at anchor points. Houses...

As remedial actions

Plantillas Unicornio Para Imprimir

Immediate response for release is required, including release reporting, immediate containment, monitoring of explosive hazards, performing a site check to evaluate the extent of release, determining the presence of free product on the water table, and remedying hazards posed by excavated soils. Further corrective actions may be required such as removing the released free product, soil gas, and contaminated groundwater and soils, as well as removal and replacement of tanks. Detailed correction...

Emerging Technologies

Apart from the conventional biological treatment systems discussed above, there are several emerging technologies for the food industry wastewater. The use of different types of membrane bioreac-tors (MBRs) is one of them. The MBR process can be considered as a modification to the activated sludge process that we have discussed above. Usually, the membrane module is submerged in the bioreactor.44,45 The incorporation of membrane modules is not limited with aerobic systems, but it is possible to...

Management Reuse Recycle and Disposal of Vehicle Batteries

Every year in the United States, billions of batteries are bought, used, and thrown out. In 1998 alone, over 3 billion industrial and household batteries were sold. The demand for batteries can be traced largely to the rapid increase in automobiles, cordless, portable products such as cellular phones, video cameras, laptop computers, and battery-powered tools and toys. Because many batteries contain toxic constituents such as mercury and cadmium, they pose a potential threat to human health and...

Typical Types of Household Batteries

Cassettes players, radios, appliances Flashlights, toys, etc. Cameras, calculators, watches, computers, etc. Hearing aids, pacemakers, cameras, calculators, watches, etc. Hearing aids, watches, cameras, calculators Hearing aids, pagers Cameras, rechargeable appliances such as portable power tools, hand-held vacuums, etc. Camcorders, computers, portable radios, and tape players, cellular phones, lawn mower starters, etc. Battery manufacturers are producing more rechargeable batteries each year....

Aerobic Degradation of Formaldehyde

Instructivo Para Barco Papel

The aerobic degradation of formaldehyde in wastewater has been studied by different authors in both continuous22 and batch experiments.23-25 The degradation can occur by two possible paths (see Equations 19.10 and 19.11) 1. Initiated by a dismutation reaction, yielding formic acid and methanol as products, if the microorganism has a formaldehyde dismutase enzyme 2. Via formic acid if the microorganism has the enzymes formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenase24 The biodegradation of the metabolites...

Ironmaking 241 Process Description

Climate Resolution Scope Statement

In the blast furnace iron-making process, iron ore is reduced by removing oxygen, followed by melting of the resulting iron. Agglomeration processes such as pelletization and sintering help in producing coarse particles of suitable sized iron ore for easy charging into the blast furnace. In pelletization, an unbaked green pellet is formed from iron ore concentrate combined with a binder. These green pellets are hardened by heat treatment in an oxidizing furnace. Pelletizing is usually done at...

Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor

Fluidized Bed Reactor Ammonia Removal

An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) utilizes small particles such as sand and activated carbon as the media for microorganism growth. Wastewater flow enters the reactor through the bottom of the reactor. Media are kept in the fluidized state by controlling the up-flow velocity of the wastewater stream in such a way that the weight of the media particles equals the drag force exerted by the wastewater.21,22 The height of the fluidized bed is stabilized. On average, a packing size of...

Outline of the RCRA

B OSW authorities of the Administrator and Interagency Coordinating Committee D State or regional solid waste plans E Duties of the Secretary of Commerce in resource and recovery H Research, development, demonstration, and information J Standards for the tracking and management of medical waste Source Adapted from U.S. EPA, RCRA Orientation Manual, www.epa.gov waste inforesources pubs orientat roml.pdf. Today, the Act consists of 10 subtitles (Table 12.1). Subtitles A, B, E, F, G, H, and J...

Wastewater Characterization

Each metal subcategory uses different processes and emits different pollutant concentrations and types in the process wastewater. The following paragraphs and tables present information on the wastewater streams for each of the subcategories.2, 3 Raw waste characteristics for the industry generally reflect the products and the methods used to manufacture them. Because there is such diversity in products, processing, raw materials, and process control, there is a wide range of characteristics....

Biological Treatment Process

Structural Taper Beam Details

The biological treatment process involves the use of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to convert finely divided colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter in wastewater into various gases and into cell tissues that are then removed from sedimentation tanks as flocculent settle-able organic and inorganic solids. This process often complements both physical and chemical processes and it is classified as follows. 22.1.4.3.1 Activated Sludge Process This process is a continuous...

Special Standards

While RCRA specifically exempts some wastes when recycled, some recycling processes may still pose enough of a hazard to warrant some degree of regulation. However, due to the nature of the recycling process itself or the nature of the materials being recycled, these processes may require a specialized set of standards. These processes are as follows2 1. Use constituting disposal Use constituting disposal refers to the practice of recycling hazardous wastes by placing them on the land or using...

Combustion Standards under RCRA

Emissions from combustion units may comprise a variety of hazardous pollutants. To minimize potential harmful effects of these pollutants, U.S. EPA developed performance standards to regulate four pollutant categories 2. Hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas Boilers and most industrial furnaces have performance standards that they must meet. For each category or type of emission, the regulations establish compliance methods and alternatives. Because the primary purpose of a combustion unit is to...

Options for Owners Operators of BIFs to Meet Emission Standard

EPA, Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, 40 CFR Part 266, Subpart H, EPA530-R-99-042, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, February 2000. 23.2.1.2.1.2 Products of Incomplete Combustion Poor combustion conditions result in the release of a high concentration of organic materials formed during the combustion process. These PICs may be present in the original waste stream or may be new compounds that form during the thermal breakdown and subsequent recombination of...

Regulation of Residues

Under the traditional hazardous waste regulations, the derived-from rule requires that anything derived from the treatment, storage, or disposal of a hazardous waste is, itself, a hazardous waste. Thus, any residue generated from the burning of hazardous waste in a BIF would normally be considered a hazardous waste under RCRA. The Bevill Amendments,21 however, provide three statutory exclusions from the definition of hazardous waste for certain residues residues from the burning of coal and...

Nanotechnology for Mercury Removal

When the mercury-containing equipment is improperly disposed of on land, the mercury will eventually leachate out from the waste equipment. Once released into the environment, mercury remains there indefinitely, contaminating the soil, sediment, and groundwater. This contamination eventually enters the food chain, exposing local populations to mercury's harmful effects.2 Until now there has been no effective technology for reducing groundwater mercury to two parts per billion, as required by...

Effective BMPs

Numerous practices have been developed to eliminate or minimize discharges of pollutants from the metal finishing industry. Successful source reduction measures have been implemented to eliminate cyanide plating baths, as well as substitute more toxic solvents with less toxic cleaners. In many cases, cleaning with solvents has been eliminated altogether through the use of water-based cleaning supplemented with detergents, heating, and or agitation. Other source reduction measures have been...

Pollution Prevention Measures

The iron and steel industry needs to opt for technologies that help to either prevent or reduce the generation and discharge of process wastes. The various preventive measures to be adopted for reducing the environmental impacts are as follows 1. Reduction of dust emissions at furnaces by covering iron runners and using nitrogen blankets during tapping of the blast furnace 2. Use of pneumatic transport, enclosed conveyor belts or self-closing conveyor belts, wind barriers and other dust...

Bm Qm 0dm1820a

Soil Washing Process

Where Bm carbon bed (kg), Qm influent rate (m3 min), t contact time (min), and dm carbon density (kg m3), where, B carbon bed (lb), Q influent rate (gal min), t contact time (min), and d carbon density (lb ft3), where Ccm actual carbon dosage (kg m3), T on-stream cycle time (d), and Qm influent rate (m3 min), where Cc actual carbon dosage (lb 1000 gal), T on-stream cycle time (d), Q influent rate (gal min), and d 25 (lb ft3), and Pm (55,922) Q 11 Bhm (18.22a) where Pdm pressure drop (mmHg),...

Lawrence K Wang Veysel Eroglu and Ferruh Erturk

28.1 Introduction 28.1.1 Metal Finishing Industry 28.1.2 Acid Pickling and Acid Cleaning of Metal Surface 28.1.3 Pickling Liquor and Waste Pickling Liquor 28.1.4 Acid Pickling Operation 28.1.5 WPL Treatment and Recycle 28.2 Pickling Process Reactions and WPL Characteristics 28.2.1 WPL Generation 28.2.2 Sulfuric Acid Pickling Reaction 28.2.3 Hydrochloric Acid Pickling Reactions 28.3 Treatment of WPLs and Cleaning Wastes 28.3.1 Treatment, Disposal, or Recycle 28.3.2 Neutralization and...

Concrete Aggregate Test Procedures

Property Test Method Specification Concrete made by volumetric batching and continuous mixing Terminology related to concrete and concrete aggregates Sizes of aggregate for road and bridge construction Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregate Specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate Specific gravity and absorption of fine aggregate Flat and elongated particles in coarse aggregate Uncompacted voids content of fine aggregate Index of aggregate particle shape and texture Resistance...

Migration of Oxygenates in the Environment

MTBE and other oxygenates typically enter the environment blended with gasoline or other refined fuel products. However, these oxygenates migrate differently within the environment because of the differences in physical properties between oxygenates and the other components of gasoline, such as BTEX, of which benzene is typically the most common contaminant of concern. Table 24.2 contains a summary of some properties that influence the migration of MTBE and other oxygenates in the environment....

Effect of Oxygenates Properties on Their Treatment

The properties of MTBE and other oxygenates, including water solubility, vapor pressure, soil adsorption coefficient, retardation factor, and Henry's law constant, affect their fate and transport in the environment relative to other contaminants. These same properties also affect the selection and design of remediation technologies used to address soil and water contaminated with oxygenates. In general, the same types of treatment technologies have been applied for the treatment of BTEX and...

Removal of Pollutants by a Combination of Lime Precipitation Sedimentation and Filtration at Plant Ba

Sedimentation Nickel Plant

EPA, Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Aluminum Forming Point Source Category, Vols. 1 & 2, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1984 U.S. EPA, Aluminum Forming Point Source Category, 2008. a Treated effluent performance reported for the period 1974-1979. processes can be used for separation of the freed oil together with other pollutants from the wastewater. This specific set of treatment data documents the efficiency of the emulsion breaking...

Industry description

8.1.1 Historical Cultural Development Enameling is an old and widelyadopted technology.1-9 The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to pottery and stone objects. The ancient Greeks, Celts, Russians, and Chinese also used enameling processes on metal objects.9 Enameling was also used to decorate glass vessels during the Roman period, and there is evidence of this as early as the late Republican and early Imperial periods in the Levantine, Egypt, Britain, and the Black Sea.1 Enamel powder could be...

Lawrence K Wang Daniel Guss and Milos Krofta

Hydraulic Retention Time Formula

27.1 Introduction 27.1.1 Summary 27.1.2 Problems of an Existing Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment System 27.1.3 Application of Secondary Flotation Clarification as an Engineering 27.1.4 Objectives of the Engineering Research and Documentations 1157 27.2 DAF and DAFF Clarifiers 27.2.1 Commercially Available DAF and DAFF Clarifiers for Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems 27.2.2 General Operational Description of DAF and DAFF 27.3 Improved Biological Treatment System 27.3.1 General...

Azni Idris Katayon Saed and Yung Tse Hung Contents

15.1 Introduction 15.2 Sanitary Landfill 15.3 Leachate 15.4 Composition and Characteristics of Leachate 15.4.1 Leachate of Different Age 15.4.2 Leachate in Different Countries 15.5 Leachate Treatment 15.6 Bioremediation Methods 15.6.1 In Situ and Ex Situ Methods 15.6.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bioremediation 15.6.3 Physiology of Biodegradative 15.6.4 Metabolic Processes 15.6.5 Factors Affecting Bioremediation 15.7 Bioremediation of Landfill Leachate 15.8 Case 15.8.1 Case 1 Anaerobic...

Industrial Process Description

This section specifically contains a description of commonly used production processes, associated raw materials, the byproducts produced or released, and the materials either recycled or transferred offsite. This discussion, coupled with schematic drawings of the identified processes, provide a concise description of where wastes may be produced in the process.1617 Copper is mined in both open pits and underground mines, depending upon the ore grade and the nature of the ore deposit. Copper...

Nazih K Shammas

Difference Tcf Und Ecf Bleaching

21.1 Introduction 21.1.1 Background 21.1.2 Characterization of the Pulp and Paper Industry 21.1.3 Industry Size and Geographic 21.1.4 Economic Trends 21.2 Process 21.2.1 Processes in the Pulp and Paper Industry 21.2.2 Raw Material Inputs and Pollution Outputs in the Production Line 873 21.2.3 Management of Chemicals in 21.3 Pollution Prevention Opportunities 21.3.1 Extended Delignification 21.3.2 Oxygen Delignification 21.3.3 Ozone Delignification 21.3.4 Anthraquinone Catalysis 21.3.5 Black...

TABLE 317 continued

Toxic Pollutant Samples > 10 mg L Methylene chloride 10 2 Tetrachloroethylene 10 2 Trichloroethylene 10 1 ND-0.2 ND-0.2 ND-0.02 ND-0.2 ND-0.04 ND-0.7 ND-0.02 ND-0.1 ND-0.03 ND-0.03 ND-0.3 ND-0.3 ND-0.4 ND-0.3 ND-0.02 ND-0.4 b b b b b b b b b Source From U.S. EPA, Treatability Manual, Volume II Industrial Descriptions, report EPA-600 2-82-001b, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, September 1981. ND, not detectable. a No median concentration is available in the reference. b No mean concentration is...

Lawrence K Wang and Nazih K Shammas

7.1 General Description of Coil Coating Industry and Operations 7.2 Cleaning Operation of Coil Coating 7.2.1 Mild Alkaline Cleaning 7.2.2 Strong Alkaline Cleaning 7.2.3 Acid Cleaning 7.2.4 Special Cleaning 7.3 Conversion Coating Process of Coil Coating 7.3.1 Chromate Conversion Coatings 7.3.2 Phosphate Conversion Coatings 7.3.3 Complex Oxide Conversion Coating 7.3.4 No-Rinse Conversion Coatings 7.4 Painting Operation of Coil Coating 7.5 Subcategories of the Coil Coating Industry 7.5.1 General...

General Management and Disposal of Large Electrical Waste Appliances

Large electrically powered domestic waste appliances, such as cookers, ovens, washing machines and other cleaning appliances, mobile electrical heaters, and ventilators come under the category of large electrical waste appliances. The electricity for the large waste electrical appliances is supplied by the electrical mains. These large electrical waste appliances consist mainly of iron, copper, aluminum, and insulation materials. The insulation materials are mostly inorganic. The electronic...

MTBE Performance Summary for 21 Completed Pumpand Treat Projects

Air sparging and SVE Pump-and-treat with other technologies Median Maximum Minimum Median Maximum (months) Source Adapted from U.S. EPA, Technologies for Treating MTBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates, EPA 542-R-04-009, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, May 2004. MTBE Performance Summary for 62 Ongoing Pump-and-Treat Projects Greater than or equal to 10,000 ng L but less than 100,000 g L Greater than or equal to 1000 ng L but less than 10,000 g L Greater than or equal to...

Loannis Paspaliaris Nymphodora Papassiopi Anthimos Xenidis and Yung Tse Hung

14.1 Introduction 14.1.1 Contamination of Soils 14.1.2 Remediation Technologies 14.2 Soil Vapor Extraction 14.2.1 General Description 14.2.2 Design Considerations 14.3 Bioremediation 14.3.1 Introduction 14.3.2 Principles of Bioremediation 14.3.3 Engineering Factors 14.3.4 In Situ Methods for the Biological Treatment of Organic Contaminants 539 14.3.5 Ex Situ Biological Treatment 14.4 Phytoremediation 14.4.1 General Description 14.4.2 Phytoremediation Mechanisms 14.4.3 Design Considerations 14.5...

Technical Terminologies Of Aluminum Forming Operations And Pollution Control

Aluminum forming is a set of manufacturing operations in which aluminum and aluminum alloys are made into semifinished products by hot or cold working. 2. Ancillary operation is a manufacturing operation that has a large flow, discharges significant amounts of pollutants, and may not be present at every plant in a subcategory, but when present is an integral part of the aluminum forming process. 3. Contact cooling water is any wastewater that contacts the aluminum workpiece or the raw materials...

Jos Luis Campos Gmez Anuska Mosquera Corral Ramn Mndez Pampn and Yung Tse Hung

19.1 Generation of Wastewater 19.1.1 Production Process 19.1.2 Characterization of the Effluent 19.2 Biological Treatment 19.2.1 Biological Processes and Strategies 19.2.2 Interactions between Biological Processes and Compounds 764 19.3 Technologies for Wastewater Treatment 19.3.1 Anaerobic Treatment 19.3.2 Aerobic Treatment 19.3.3 Treatment Combining Nitrification and Denitrification Units 773 19.4 Guidelines for the Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant for Wastewater Containing Formaldehyde...

Anaerobic Formaldehyde Removal

Different pathways have been proposed to explain the anaerobic biodegradation of formaldehyde according to the intermediate products observed.5-7 Gonzalez-Gil and colleagues5 carried out anaerobic activity tests using formaldehyde as the only carbon source and found that part of this compound was readily transformed into methanol. These authors could recover all substrate COD as methane when assayed for initial formaldehyde doses of 200 and 600 mg L COD, but no methane production was observed...

UpFlow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was developed by Lettinga, van Velsen, and Hobma in 1979.27 It is simple in design and is a combination of physical and biological processes.27,28 It can be categorized under suspended growth systems.28 The wastewater flow to be treated is sent upward from the bottom of the reactor. At the bottom of the reactor, wastewater contacts with the active anaerobic sludge solids distributed over the sludge blanket. The sludge blanket contains granules...

Regulatory Standards

The standards include full operation and management requirements for permitted facilities (new) and less stringent provisions for interim status facilities (existing). The TSDF standards require facilities to comply with 2. Preparedness and prevention requirements 3. Contingency plans and emergency procedure provisions 4. Manifest, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. TSDFs owners and operators can treat, store, or dispose of waste in a variety of units. Each unit has its own specific...

Examples from LDR Technology Based Standards

Recovery of metals RORGS Recovery of organics STABL Stabilization Biodegradation uses microorganisms to break down organic compounds to make a waste less toxic Chemical reduction converts metal and inorganic constituents in wastewater into insoluble precipitates that are later settled out of the wastewater, leaving a lower concentration of metals and inorganics in the wastewater Combustion destroys organic wastes or makes them less hazardous through burning in boilers, industrial furnaces, or...

History and Purpose of CERCLA

CERCLA was established in response to the discovery, in the late 1970s, of a large number of abandoned, leaking, hazardous waste dumps that were threatening human health and contaminating the environment.17 One of the best-known dumps was Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York, where a chemical company had buried large amounts of hazardous waste in a canal originally designed to transport water. After the canal was capped with clay and soil, an elementary school was built over the site, and the...

Bioadsorbentsbased systems

Current reviews on biosorption are related to general approaches90-93 to diverse types of biomass such as microbial biomass, plant wastes, and agro-based waste materials, or to a specific metal.494-98 However, a review on metal biosorption using macrophytes biomass is not available. In this chapter, a review on the current knowledge of biosorption using preferentially nonliving biomass from aquatic plants is presented. Biosorption is a property of both living and dead organisms and may be...

An Deng Yung Tse Hung and Lawrence K Wang

Flowchart For Green Sand Mold Process

4.1 Industry Description 4.1.1 Casting Flow 4.1.2 Casting 4.1.3 Sand Casting Systems 4.1.4 Casting Metals 4.2 Characterization of Wastes 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Air Emission 4.2.3 Wastewater 4.2.4 Spent Foundry Sand 4.2.5 Baghouse Dust 4.2.6 Furnace Slag 4.3 Source Reduction 4.3.1 Chemical Substitution or Minimization 4.3.2 In-Plant Reclamation 4.3.3 Waste Segregation 4.3.4 Process Modifications to Reduce Emission 4.4 Solid Wastes Reuse Technologies 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Reuse Evaluation Framework...

Khim Hoong Chu Eui Yong Kim and Yung Tse Hung

17.1 Introduction 17.2 Description of Horseradish Peroxidase 17.3 Model Development 17.3.1 Catalytic Cycle and Inactivation of HRP 17.3.2 Proposed Reaction Mechanism 17.3.3 Derivation of the Reaction Rate Equation 17.4 Parameter Estimation and Model Validation 17.4.1 Experimental Data 17.4.2 Parameter Estimation 17.4.3 Model Validation 17.5 Model Simulation 17.5.1 Dependence of the Reaction Rate on PCP Concentration 17.5.2 Dependence of the Reaction Rate on H2O2 Concentration 678 17.5.3...

Lawrence K Wang Nazih K Shammas Ping Wang and Nicholas L Clesceri

18.1 Introduction 18.2 Legislative and Regulatory Overview 18.2.1 Subtitle I of the RCRA 18.2.2 Subtitle J of the RCRA 18.2.3 State and Local UST Programs 18.2.4 USTs Containing Other Hazardous Chemicals 18.3 Causes of Leaks and Leak Identification Methods 18.3.1 Causes of Tank Failure 18.3.2 Leak Identification Methods 18.4 Underground Conditions and Factors Affecting Transport of Liquids in the Subsurface 18.4.1 Underground Formations 18.4.2 Gravitational Force Affecting Underground Liquid...

Regeneration of WPL and Bright Dipping Liquors

Acid cleaning, or pickling, is often used to remove contaminants from the workpiece using an acid. Acid pickling is used to remove oxides (rust), scale, or tarnish as well as to neutralize any base remaining on the parts. Acid pickling uses aqueous solutions of sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, and or nitric acids. For instance, most carbon steel is pickled in sulfuric or hydrochloric acids although hydrochloric acid can embrittle certain types of steel and is used only in specific...

Factors to Be Considered When Identifying Technologies to Treat Fuel Oxygenates

Table 24.6 summarizes the general factors to be considered when identifying technologies to treat sites contaminated with fuel oxygenates. These general factors were developed based on the U.S. EPA's data from the 323 technology applications,31 as well as from the Remediation Technology Screening Matrix and Reference Guide34 and other industry references. As shown in Table 24.6, these general factors include type of treatment, relative time to complete, and relative cost. Table 24.7 summarizes...

O Sarafadeen Amuda A Olanrewaju Alade Yung Tse Hung and Lawrence K Wang

22.1 Introduction 22.1.1 Industrial Wastewater 22.1.2 Process Wastes 22.1.3 General Wastewater Treatments 22.1.4 Common Wastewater Treatment Processes 22.1.5 Wastewater Characterization 22.1.6 Effluent Disposal 22.2 Inorganic Chemical Industries 22.2.1 Classification of Inorganic Chemical Industries 22.3 Industrial Processes, Wastewater Generation, and Treatment in Inorganic Chemicals Production 22.3.1 Aluminum 22.3.2 Chlor-Alkali 22.3.3 Chrome Pigments 22.3.4 Copper 22.3.5 Hydrofluoric Acid...

Trickling Filter Process

Stone Trickling Filters

Trickling filter systems are classified under the aerobic attached growth systems (Figure 30.7). Crushed rock and stone, slag, wood, or synthetic media with higher permeability are used to fill the filter bed. The size of the media is in the range of 25-100 mm diameter. The depth of the filter FIGURE 30.6 Schematic diagram of the activated sludge process. FIGURE 30.6 Schematic diagram of the activated sludge process. FIGURE 30.7 Flow diagram of the trickling filter. FIGURE 30.7 Flow diagram of...

Geochemical Characteristics Of Hazardous Wastes

This section relates the chemical characteristics of inorganic and organic hazardous wastes to the important fate-influencing geochemical processes occurring in the deep-well environment. 20.5.1 Inorganic versus Organic Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are broadly classified as either organic or inorganic. Carbon is the central building block of organic wastes, whereas inorganic wastes are compounds formed by elements other than carbon (except for a few carbon-containing compounds such as...

Injection ConfiningZone Lithology and Chemistry

The injection zone consisted of multiple Upper Cretaceous strata of sand, silty sand, clay, and some thin beds of limestone (see Figure 20.14). The clay confining layer was about 30 m (100 ft) thick. Sand & gravel i- -i Clay Sand & gravel i- -i Clay Limestone f i Crystalline rock FIGURE 20.14 Diagram showing construction features and lithologic log of North Observation Well, Wilmington, NC. (From U.S. EPA, Assessing the Geochemical Fate of Deep-Well-Injected Hazardous Waste A Reference...

Emergency Planning and Community Rightto Know

Congress amended CERCLA in 1986 with the enactment of the SARA. These amendments improved the Superfund program and added an important section that focused on strengthening the rights of citizens and communities in the face of potential hazardous substance emergencies. This section, SARA Title III, or the EPCRA, was enacted in response to the more than 2000 deaths caused by the release of a toxic chemical in Bhopal, India. EPCRA22 is intended to help communities prepare to respond in the event...

Effect of metals on microbial processes

Even with all of these mechanisms in place for metal resistance, microbes remain susceptible to heavy metals at high concentrations. In the environment, heavy metal toxicity affects many important processes mediated by microorganisms, including litter decomposition,61-63 methanogenesis,64-66 acidogenesis,67,68 nitrogen transformation,69-71 enzymatic activity,72-74 and biodegradation of organics75 76 (Table 11.2). 11.3.1 Metals and General Soil Microbiological Processes Many studies have...

Adsorption and Desorption

Adsorption is a physicochemical process whereby ionic and nonionic solutes become concentrated from solution at solid-liquid interfaces.31,32 Adsorption and desorption are caused by interactions between and among molecules in solution and those in the structure of solid surfaces. Adsorption is a major mechanism affecting the mobility of heavy metals and toxic organic substances and is thus a major consideration when assessing transport. Because adsorption is usually fully or partly reversible...

RCRA and Remedy Selection under CERCLA

CERCLA assures that remedies are based on the cleanup standards and criteria that have been established by other laws, such as CAA, CWA, and RCRA. CERCLA specifically requires that on-site remedies attain any legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs), standards, criteria, or limitations under federal or more stringent state environmental laws, including RCRA, unless site-specific waivers are obtained. This means, for example, that whenever a remedial action involves...

Concentration of 14 Regulated Elements in Electric Arc Furnace Dust

< 0.05-106,000 1.3-139,000 < 0.001-41 < 10-22,000 Source From U.S. EPA, Final BDAT Background Document for K061, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, August 1988. 2. Onsite processing by agglomerating or briquetting and directly recycling back through the EAF (to concentrate the zinc content) 3. Onsite processing in a separate processing facility to glassify or vitrify the heavy metal content 4. Onsite processing using hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical processes to upgrade the zinc values to...

Process Materials Inputs Pollution Outputs for Zinc

Secondary zinc reduction distillation Zinc calcine, sulfuric acid, limestone, spent electrolyte Zinc in a sulfuric acid aqueous solution, lead-silver alloy anodes, aluminum cathodes, barium carbonate, or strontium, colloidal additives Zinc scrap, electric arc furnace dust, drosses, diecastings, fluxes Medium-grade zinc drosses, oxidic dust, acids, alkalines, or ammoniacal solutions Sulfur dioxide, particulate matter containing zinc and lead Wastewaters containing sulfuric acid Wastewaters...

RCRA Subtitle I USTs

RCRA Subtitle I regulates USTs that contain petroleum or hazardous substances. A major objective of Subtitle I is to prevent and clean up releases from tanks. Under Subtitle I, U.S. EPA has developed performance standards for new tanks, upgrading requirements for existing tanks, and regulations to prevent, detect, and clean up releases at all UST sites. State UST programs may be approved to operate in lieu of the federal program. Many UST owners and operators must secure loans from financial...

Well Geochemical Processes and Other Environmental Factors

Strong acids (bases) will tend to change pH weak acids (bases) will buffer solutions to minimize pH changes. Strongly influences adsorption, because hydrogen ions play an active role in both chemical and physical bonding processes. Mobility of heavy metals is strongly influenced by pH. Adsorption of some organics is also pH-dependent. Strongly influences precipitation-dissolution reactions. Mixing of solutions with different pH often results in precipitation...

RCRA Subtitle D Solid Waste

RCRA's solid waste management program encourages environmentally sound solid waste management practices that maximize the reuse of recoverable material and foster resource recovery. The term solid waste is very broad, including not only the traditional nonhazardous solid wastes, such as municipal garbage, but also some hazardous wastes. RCRA Subtitle D addresses solid wastes, including those hazardous wastes that are excluded from the Subtitle C regulations (e.g., household hazardous waste) and...

Waste Minimization

EPA has devoted much of its efforts in the past to the treatment and cleanup of pollutants after they are generated. In fact, great strides have been made in environmental protection over the past 20 years. U.S. EPA realizes, however, that there are environmental and economic incentives to reducing or eliminating waste before it is even generated. Consequently, both the RCRA solid and hazardous waste programs have adopted waste minimization elements. U.S. EPA uses the term waste...

Inputs and Outputs of the Steel Making Operation

Air pollution control (APC) dust and sludge Metal dusts (consisting of iron particulate, zinc, and other metals associated with the scrap, and flux) Slag Kish Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide Nitrogen oxides and ozone Iron oxide materials and waste oxides Oxygen Alloy materials (e.g., aluminum, manganese, chromium, nickel) Electricity and natural gas for auxiliary processes Source From U.S. EPA, Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry, EPA 310-R-95-005, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1995....

Inputs and Outputs of the Steel Making Operation EAF

Scrap metal Direct reduced iron Hot briquetted iron Cold pig iron Hot metal Alloy materials (e.g., aluminum, manganese, chromium, nickel) Fluxes (e.g., lime) Electricity Oxygen Nitrogen Natural gas Oil EAF emission control dust and sludge (K061) Source From U.S. EPA, Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry, EPA 310-R-95-005, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1995. as oil, grease, and other combustible materials evolve from the surface of the scrap. In the presence of sufficient oxygen these compounds...

Planned mechanical systems 31231 SSDPressurization Systems

One of the most frequently used radon reduction techniques in existing homes is an SSD system. Typical installation costs for a system in existing homes currently range from USD1500 to USD2500.912 If the same system is installed or at least planned for, and roughed in during construction, the cost is much lower so a prudent builder who is erecting a radon-resistant home should include features that will allow for the easy installation of such a system. Radon mitigation by SSD has been proven to...

Types of Technologies for Treatment of Soil Groundwater and Drinking Water Contaminated with Oxygenates

Technologies that have been used to treat groundwater and soil contaminated with oxygenates include air sparging, SVE, MPE, in situ bioremediation, ISCO, groundwater extraction, above-ground treatment (i.e., pump-and-treat or drinking water treatment), and phytoremediation. Aboveground treatment for extracted groundwater includes technologies such as air stripping, activated carbon, chemical oxidation, and bioremediation. Air sparging, SVE, and MPE rely generally on the use of air flow to...

Biological functions of heavy metals

Life depends on interactions between organic and inorganic components. The organic building blocks of life consist of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids however, many of these organic compounds require inorganic metals to function properly. Metals that have a biological function, such as copper, nickel, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, are deemed essential metals.1 These metals commonly serve as cofactors for proteinaceous enzymes, but they may also be used to stabilize proteins...

Barriers To Solid Waste Reuse

Besides technical aspects, wide acceptance of reusing foundry solid wastes as marketable materials will only be achieved by removing barriers or limitations arising from public perception (education or training), environmental regulation, engineering guidelines and procedures, economics, and market potentials. These barriers are basically nontechnical but take considerable efforts to address. Unlike the technical aspects of a reuse program, many parties are involved, such as the government, the...

Standard Nickel Solution Concentration Limits

Nickel sulfate NiSO4-6H2O as NiSO4 Nickel chloride NiCl2-6H2O as NiCl2 Boric acid, H3BO3 Source U.S. EPA, Meeting Hazardous Waste Requirements for Metal Finishers, Report EPA 625 4-87 018, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1987. decrease in bath chemical concentration results in the same percent reduction in the mass of chemicals lost in the drag-out. The disadvantage of low-concentration baths may be lowered plating efficiencies, which may require higher current densities...

Overall Design Considerations Active and Passive Systems

When designing an active or passive system, many design considerations are common to the two systems. For example, some provision for removal of condensation that forms in the exhaust pipe will be required. Routing of the pipes from the basement to the roof must be considered when the house is being designed. Placement of the exhaust is extremely important. Removal of condensation is an important consideration. Water collecting in an elbow or other low point of the system can effectively block...

General Management and Disposal of Universal Wastes

Universal Waste Bulbs Examples

Universal waste is a legal environmental term used in the United States. The Universal Waste Regulations in the United States streamline the collection requirements for certain hazardous wastes in the specific categories decided by the Federal and the State governments. The Universal Waste Regulations ease regulatory burdens on businesses promote proper recycling, treatment, or disposal and provide for efficient, proper, and cost-effective collection opportunities. The U.S. EPA Federal...

ISCO Process

ISCO is a technology in which an oxidant, and other amendments as necessary, is introduced into contaminated media to react with site contaminants such as MTBE, other fuel oxygenates, and other organic compounds, converting them to innocuous products, such as carbon dioxide and water. Typically, hydrogen peroxide (H ), ozone (O3), or permanganate (MnO-) oxidants have been used to treat MTBE in soil and groundwater. Persulfate (S2O-) compounds have also been used as chemical oxidants for...

Hazardous Waste Recycling Used Oil And Universal Wastes

RCRA hazardous wastes do not cease to be dangerous simply because they are being reused, recycled, or reclaimed. Many hazardous waste recycling operations may pose serious health and environmental hazards and should be subject to regulation. Reuse, recycling, and reclamation should be viewed instead as ways of managing hazardous wastes, which, if properly conducted, can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, and reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy....

Used Oil Regulation

In an effort to encourage the recycling of used oil, and in recognition of the unique properties and potential hazards posed by used oil, Congress passed the Used Oil Recycling Act in 1980. This Act amended RCRA by requiring U.S. EPA to study the hazards posed by used oil and to develop used oil management standards to protect human health and the environment. As a result, U.S. EPA developed special recycling regulations for used oil that are completely separate from hazardous waste recycling...

Environmental Issues

In the U.S., three pieces of federal legislation that were passed from 1969 to 1980, and the implementing rules and regulations that followed, initiated a series of fundamental changes in the management of waste and byproduct materials. They presently affect the way in which regulatory agencies address waste and byproduct material use. These acts include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA, 1969), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA, 1976, 1980), and the Comprehensive...

Solid Wastes Reuse Technologies

As the volume of solid wastes generated out of the metal casting industry and the cost of waste disposal continue to increase, there is increased pressure and incentive to divert valuable materials from the wastestreams, recover and recycle these materials for use in secondary applications, which in turn reduces the burden on landfills and minimizes the need for virgin materials. Many examples show that it is not only better for the environment but is profitable for the metal casting industry...

Design and Construction

Conventional structural design and construction procedures for a construction are generally applicable to a construction incorporating foundry solid wastes. The same production methods and equipment used for conventional manufacture can be used for production of manufacture using foundry solid waste. From an engineering perspective, recycled materials should be used in such a manner that the expected performance of the product will not be compromised. Waste and byproduct materials, however,...