Pretreatment Alternatives

Pretreatment is a series of physical and chemical processes to precondition the wastewater and remove some wastes. The treatment is usually arranged in the following sequence screening flow equalization and neutralization optional fat, oil, and grease (FOG) separator optional acidification Characteristics of Soft Drink Wastewater Characteristics of Soft Drink Wastewater Source Chen, J.P., Seng, S.S., and Hung, Y.T., Soft Drink Waste Treatment, Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Waste...

Economic Benefits

For the Germanakos tannery, which has a chrome recycling capacity of 12 m3 d, the approximate costs were as follows14 Savings (USD yr) Operating cost (USD yr) Total net savings (USD yr) Capital investment (USD) Payback 95,880 39,260 56,620 52,000 11 months Savings can be made with any plant processing more than 1.7 m3 d. 1.9.9 Minimization of Organic Solvents in Degreasing and Painting of Metals Thorn Jarnkonst of Sweden produces lighting fixtures from aluminum or steel sheets for indoor and...

Info

FIGURE 18.2 Superatmospheric and subatmospheric pressures below and above a free-water surface. cryo-scanning electron microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. For more information, see references 26 to 28. Wettability measurements show that most soil constituents are water wettable or hydrophilic,28 although calcium carbonates calcite, CaCO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2 are slightly hydrophobic for example, the contact angle of water and heptane is 100 to 105 . Therefore, carbonaceous...

O Sarafadeen Amuda A Olanrewaju Alade Yung Tse Hung and Lawrence K Wang

22.1 Introduction 22.1.1 Industrial Wastewater 22.1.2 Process Wastes 22.1.3 General Wastewater Treatments 22.1.4 Common Wastewater Treatment Processes 22.1.5 Wastewater Characterization 22.1.6 Effluent Disposal 22.2 Inorganic Chemical Industries 22.2.1 Classification of Inorganic Chemical Industries 22.3 Industrial Processes, Wastewater Generation, and Treatment in Inorganic Chemicals Production 22.3.1 Aluminum 22.3.2 Chlor-Alkali 22.3.3 Chrome Pigments 22.3.4 Copper 22.3.5 Hydrofluoric Acid...

Standard Nickel Solution Concentration Limits

Nickel sulfate NiSO4-6H2O as NiSO4 Nickel chloride NiCl2-6H2O as NiCl2 Boric acid, H3BO3 Source U.S. EPA, Meeting Hazardous Waste Requirements for Metal Finishers, Report EPA 625 4-87 018, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 1987. decrease in bath chemical concentration results in the same percent reduction in the mass of chemicals lost in the drag-out. The disadvantage of low-concentration baths may be lowered plating efficiencies, which may require higher current densities...

Miscellaneous Statutory Provisions

Consistent with RCRA's focus on recycling, the statute contains provisions for U.S. EPA to encourage recycling and promote the development of markets for items with recovered materials content. To help achieve this goal, U.S. EPA publishes federal procurement guidelines that set minimum recovered materials content standards for certain designated items. RCRA requires federal procuring agencies to purchase items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable. These...

Overview of Key Environmental and Energy Facts Refining and Casting

Energy use per ton of cast steel ingot castinga, 2.78 X 106 Btu Continuous casting, 0.29 X 106 Btu Sources vacuum degassing, Mill scale, sludge Typical wastewater volume per ton of steel Degassing 25 gal Continuous casting < 25 gal Source From Energetics, Inc., Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry, D0E EE-0229, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 2000. a Includes soaking pits.

Porcelain Enameling Industry

Shammas 8.1 Industry Description 8.1.1 Historical Cultural Development 8.1.2 Industrial Technology Development 8.2 Porcelain Enameling Process Steps 8.2.1 Enamel Slip Preparation 8.2.2 Base Material Surface Preparation 8.2.3 Enamel Application and Firing 8.3 Subcategory Descriptions of the Porcelain Enameling Industry 8.3.1 Porcelain Enameling on Steel Subcategory 8.3.2 Porcelain Enameling on Cast Iron Subcategory 8.3.3 Porcelain Enameling on Aluminum Subcategory...

Summary And Future Directions For Research

Divergent reports of effects of metals on microorganisms in the environment underscore a lack of understanding about the interactions between organic and inorganic components of life. Despite all of the mechanisms that microbes employ for protection from metal toxicity, metals remain capable of producing toxic effects at high concentrations, regardless of whether or not they have biological functions. In the environment, metals inhibit many important microbial processes, ranging from...

Meat Poultry and Seafood Sector

Meat, poultry, and seafood facilities produce a more difficult wastewater to treat. Meat and poultry processing wastewaters typically contain blood, hair, feathers, bones, fat, and manure. Such waste-waters have extremely high organic loads and high contents of oil and grease (O& G), salt, nitrogen, and phosphorus. BOD and SS of untreated streams can be as high as 8000 mg L and 800 mg L, respectively.8 Pathogens can also exist, including Salmonella and Shigella bacteria, parasite eggs, and...

Continuous Casting

Unlike direct chill casting, no restrictions are placed on the length of the casting as it is not necessary to interrupt production to remove the cast product. Continuous casting eliminates or reduces the degree of subsequent rolling required. Because continuous casting affects the mechanical properties of the aluminum cast, the use of continuous casting is limited by the alloys used, the nature of subsequent forming operations, and the desired properties of the finished product. Continuous...

Dissolved Air Flotation

DAF is usually designed by pumping compressed air bubbles to remove fine SS and FOG. The wastewater is first stored in an air-pressured closed tank and then enters the flotation tank through pressure-reduction valves. Due to a sudden reduction in pressure, air bubbles form and rise to the surface in the tank. SS and FOG adhere to the fine air bubbles and are carried upward. Both dosages of coagulant and pH are important in the removal of BOD5, COD, FOG, and SS. Other important impact factors...

Design and Performance of the Trickling Filter

Source Chen, J.P., Yang, L., Bai, R., and Hung, Y.T., Bakery Waste Treatment, Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004, pp. 1093-1111 Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet Trickling Filters, EPA 832-F-00-014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000. Available at http www.epa. gov owm trickling_filter.pdf. Removal efficiencies of BOD5 of 88.5-98 and COD of 67.8-73.6 were achieved. The process was able to cope effectively with organic shock loading...

The Use of Technologies to Treat Soil and Water Contaminated with Oxygenates

Remediation of a site contaminated with MTBE and other fuel oxygenates is often conducted using a phased approach. Often, the first phase of remedial action at a site focuses on protecting receptors at the site, such as nearby buildings or drinking water supplies. The second phase generally involves controlling the source of the contamination, for example, excavation of leaking USTs or contaminated soil, or free product removal. The next phase typically involves the active cleanup of residual...

Mminent Hazards under RCRA and CERCLA

Both RCRA and CERCLA contain provisions that allow U.S. EPA to require persons contributing to an imminent hazard to take the necessary actions to clean up releases. RCRA's imminent and substantial endangerment provision addresses nonhazardous as well as hazardous solid waste releases. The authority under CERCLA is essentially the same, except that CERCLA's authority to abate an imminent or substantial danger to public health or the environment is limited to hazardous substance releases. In an...

Planned Mechanical Systems

The entry of soil gas into buildings is the result of a complex interaction between the building shell, the mechanical system, and the climate. Important climatic variables are the wind velocity, indoor outdoor temperature differences, rainfall, and atmospheric pressure changes. Indoor radon concentrations can be reduced by planning the mechanical system so that fresh air dilutes the radon that has entered the building, and by controlling interior air pressures to reduce soil gas entry. This...

Asphalt Concrete Aggregate Test Procedures

Coarse aggregate for bituminous paving mixtures Fine aggregates for bituminous paving mixtures Steel slag aggregates for bituminous paving mixtures Aggregate for single or multiple surface treatments Crushed aggregate for macadam pavements Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates Sizes of aggregate for road and bridge construction Index of aggregate particle shape and texture Flat and elongated particles in coarse aggregate Uncompacted void content of fine aggregate (as influenced by...

Adsorption and Desorption

Adsorption is a physicochemical process whereby ionic and nonionic solutes become concentrated from solution at solid-liquid interfaces.31,32 Adsorption and desorption are caused by interactions between and among molecules in solution and those in the structure of solid surfaces. Adsorption is a major mechanism affecting the mobility of heavy metals and toxic organic substances and is thus a major consideration when assessing transport. Because adsorption is usually fully or partly reversible...

Aluminum Forming Industry Subcategory Description

Division of the industry into subcategories provides a mechanism for addressing processes, products, and other variations that result in distinct wastewater characteristics. The aluminum forming industry is comprised of separate and distinct processes with enough variability in products and wastes to require categorization into a number of discrete subcategories. The individual processes, wastewater characteristics, and treatability comprise the most significant factors in the subcategorization...

Advantages

Changed degreasing techniques (a) The environmental advantages that have been achieved are external and also within the workplace. (b) The company more than adequately meets the demands from the authorities. (c) The water purification plant, which is also used for other process baths, can be used for alkaline degreasing too and results in little additional water pollution from the degrease stage. 2. Changed painting techniques (a) There is a large reduction in the discharge of organic solvents....

Active SSD System Materials and Installation Details

As can be seen in Figure 31.13, active SSD systems consist chiefly of a pipe system and a fan. There are several other components that should be included in a good system, but are not necessary to make the system reduce radon concentrations. Most builders use 4 in. schedule 20 PVC pipes. Other sizes can be used but 4-in. PVC is readily available and is commonly used by builders for other purposes. Fans made for use in subslab systems are available in a variety of sizes from many vendors. The...

Activated Sludge Process

The activated sludge process is a suspended growth treatment system where a mixture of microorganisms is utilized for the degradation of organic pollutants. It consists of a pretreatment system, an aeration tank where biological treatment occurs, sedimentation to separate water from the SS, and, finally, sludge treatment. A portion of sludge from the sedimentation is recycled back to the aeration tank and the rest is removed from the system as waste sludge for further treatment and disposal. A...

Aluminum Forming Industrial Effluent Limitations

The effluent limitations of all aluminum forming operations representing (a) the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the BPT currently available and (b) the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the BAT economically achievable, can be found from the U.S. EPA Aluminum Forming Industry Effluent Guidelines and Categorical Regulations Summary (April 6, 2001) U.S. EPA Aluminum Forming Industry Effluent Guidelines and Categorical Regulations Summary...

Application of Bioremediation to Treatment of Oxygenates

Bioremediation is applied to MTBE and other oxygenates in systems that range in complexity from not being engineered at all (natural biodegradation) to systems that are completely engineered, including the addition of conditioned microorganisms (bioaugmentation) and of nutrients as well as cosubstrates and electron acceptors (biostimulation). Further, these systems can be based on aerobic or anaerobic pathways, or a sequential combination of these pathways. The rate at which natural...

Barriers To Solid Waste Reuse

Besides technical aspects, wide acceptance of reusing foundry solid wastes as marketable materials will only be achieved by removing barriers or limitations arising from public perception (education or training), environmental regulation, engineering guidelines and procedures, economics, and market potentials. These barriers are basically nontechnical but take considerable efforts to address. Unlike the technical aspects of a reuse program, many parties are involved, such as the government, the...

Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor

An anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) utilizes small particles such as sand and activated carbon as the media for microorganism growth. Wastewater flow enters the reactor through the bottom of the reactor. Media are kept in the fluidized state by controlling the up-flow velocity of the wastewater stream in such a way that the weight of the media particles equals the drag force exerted by the wastewater.21,22 The height of the fluidized bed is stabilized. On average, a packing size of...

Biological functions of heavy metals

Life depends on interactions between organic and inorganic components. The organic building blocks of life consist of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids however, many of these organic compounds require inorganic metals to function properly. Metals that have a biological function, such as copper, nickel, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, are deemed essential metals.1 These metals commonly serve as cofactors for proteinaceous enzymes, but they may also be used to stabilize proteins...

Beverage and Bottling Sector

The primary units in processing beverages are raw material handling and processing, mixing, fermentation, cooking, cooling, bottling and packaging, pasteurization, and cleanup. Effluent discharged from the beverage industry is normally generated by wasted drinks and syrup, water in the fermentation process, water from bottle cleaning, which contains detergents and caustics, and lastly lubricants used in the machinery. Thus, the associated wastewater pollutants contain TSS, various organics,...

Applicability of Methods and Models for Predicting Adsorption in the Deep Well Environment

The main disadvantage is that the empirical coefficients may change with changing environmental conditions, requiring measurement. Applicable only at very dilute concentrations of organic compounds and where > 0.1 organic matter is present. Usefulness is uncertain. Underlying assumptions for the derivation of the equation typically will not apply. Limited available data on adsorption under simulated deep-well conditions are best described by the formula however,...

Aluminum Forming Industry Waste Characterization

Wastewater characterization for the aluminum forming industry has been developed on a waste-stream basis, rather than on a subcategory basis. Table 5.2 summarizes the wastewater sources reported for this industry. Wastewater flow rates identified for these sources are presented in Table 5.3. The pollutants characteristic of the industry wastewaters are summarized in Table 5.4 through Table 5.11, for both classical and toxic pollutants. The toxic pollutant data have been developed using a...

Application of Pumpand Treat to Treatment of Oxygenates

A pump-and-treat system consists of an extraction and a treatment component. Groundwater is typically extracted through vertical groundwater recovery wells although, in the last decade or so, horizontal wells and trenches have also been employed. Variables in the design of a typical system include87 1. Types of extraction systems to be used. 2. Number and location of extraction points. 3. Design of extraction points (e.g., diameter, depth, and well screen interval). 4. Type of pumping apparatus...

As remedial actions

Plantillas Unicornio Para Imprimir

Immediate response for release is required, including release reporting, immediate containment, monitoring of explosive hazards, performing a site check to evaluate the extent of release, determining the presence of free product on the water table, and remedying hazards posed by excavated soils. Further corrective actions may be required such as removing the released free product, soil gas, and contaminated groundwater and soils, as well as removal and replacement of tanks. Detailed correction...

Aqueous and Solution Geochemistry Computer Codes

More than 50 computer codes that calculate chemical equilibrium in natural waters or similar aqueous systems are described in the literature.122 Most are not suitable for modeling the deep-well FIGURE 20.8 Relative tradeoffs between physical (microcosm) and mathematical models as affected by effluent complexity. (From U.S. EPA, Assessing the Geochemical Fate of Deep-Well-Injected Hazardous Waste A Reference Guide, EPA 625 6-89 025a, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH, June 1990.) injection of hazardous...

Applicability

Wastes must be an RCRA hazardous waste in order to be subject to the LDR program. In other words, unless a waste meets the definition of a solid and hazardous waste, its disposal is not regulated under the LDR program. Once a generator identifies its waste as hazardous (either listed, characteristic, or both), the waste is assigned a waste code. When U.S. EPA establishes a treatment standard for the waste code, the waste will then become restricted (i.e., subject to the LDR requirements). RCRA...

Application of Air Sparging to Treatment of Oxygenates

During air sparging, compressed air is forced into the saturated zone through one or more injection points, such as vertical or horizontal wells or engineered trenches, screened beneath the water table. The injected air flows and rises through the saturated zone. As the injected air passes through groundwater containing dissolved volatile contaminants, these contaminants partition to the injected air based on their individual physical properties. In addition, oxygen present in the injected air...

Application of SVE to Treatment of Oxygenates

During SVE, contaminated soil vapors are extracted by inducing a vacuum at one or more extraction points that are typically constructed as vertical vapor extraction wells. Horizontal extraction wells or trenches have also been employed as extraction points. In general, SVE is applied at depths FIGURE 24.4 Ranges of vapor pressures for common fuel oxygenates. (Adapted from U.S. EPA, Technologies for Treating MTBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates, EPA 542-R-04-009, United States Environmental Protection...

Byproducts

The main byproducts associated with forming and finishing are scales (typically iron oxides), an oily sludge that results from lubricating the rolls (water treatment plant sludges), and air pollution control dusts associated with treating effluents and cleaning exhaust gases. Coarse scale is separated from the sludge and collected in scale pits. The sludge, which is produced from the treatment of mill scale pit overflows, consists of oils, greases, and fine-grained solids that are collected in...

Case Studies Of Deepwell Injection Of Industrial Waste

This section discusses how field studies can be used in geochemical fate assessment and includes six cases of deep-well-injection facilities, documenting the geochemistry of the injected hazardous and other industrial wastes. Each case study is organized in the same format, with section headings as follows 1. Injection Facility Overview describes the type of facility, its current status, and the characteristics of the injected wastes, and presents a brief history of injection and monitoring...

Ca[s Kmcp[s

Fitting Equation 17.15 to the data shown in Figure 17.3 provides a simple way of estimating the four constants. The best-fit values of the four constants were estimated by minimizing the error between experimental data and model calculations. The minimization algorithm is based on a genetic algorithm, which is a stochastic optimization technique patterned after the natural selection process taking place during biological evolution. It explores all regions of the solution...

Case Study No 3 Belle Glade FL 20731 Injection Facility Overview

The Belle Glade site, located southeast of Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida, illustrates some of the problems that can develop with acidic-waste injection when carbonate rock is the confining layer. Contributing factors to the contamination of the aquifer above the confining zone were the dissolution of the carbonate rock and the difference in density between the injected wastes and the formation fluids. The injected waste was less dense than the groundwater because of its lower...

Communications and Deliverables during Scoping

For lead agency and contractor to identify actions that will abate immediate threat to public health or prevent further degradation of the environment to obtain concurrence of support agency For lead agency and contractor to improve focus of RI and reduce time and cost to obtain concurrence of support agency For lead agency and contractor to confirm need for FS for lead agency and contractor to plan data collection to obtain support agency review and concurrence For contractor to obtain lead...

Biological Treatment Process

The biological treatment process involves the use of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to convert finely divided colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter in wastewater into various gases and into cell tissues that are then removed from sedimentation tanks as flocculent settle-able organic and inorganic solids. This process often complements both physical and chemical processes and it is classified as follows. 22.1.4.3.1 Activated Sludge Process This process is a continuous...

Characteristics Of Food Industry Wastewater

Food processing wastewater has distinctive characteristics. It can be characterized as nontoxic due to the existence of few hazardous and persistent compounds such as those regulated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) toxic release inventory (TRI) listing. However, the waste-water from food processing industries contains high levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), large amounts of total suspended solids (TSS), and various inorganic...

Cleaner Production

A pollution prevention audit was carried out to improve the environment and efficiency and working conditions in the painting areas.30 The objective of this program was to reduce the quantity of wastes and costs of painting by a combination of improvements to the technology and good housekeeping. The overall aim was to improve the quality of coating, to reduce the amount of paint raw material and to reduce the quantities of wastes. The existing painting method was compared with two more...

Concerns about Contamination with Oxygenates

There have been several assessments of research concerning the health effects of MTBE and other oxygenated fuels.16,17 Recently, results of a study of the movement of MTBE between tissues in human volunteers were published.18 U.S. EPA is currently updating its assessment of the health effects of MTBE. There is uncertainty as to what levels of MTBE in drinking water cause a risk to public health.9 U.S. EPA has issued an advisory suggesting that drinking water should not contain MTBE in...

Design and Performance of Anaerobic Treatment Processes

Reactor Influent COD (g L) HRT (d) (kg COD m3 d) Removal ( ) Source Chen, J.P., Yang, L., Bai, R., and Hung, Y.T., Bakery Waste Treatment, Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004, pp. 1093-1111. AF Anaerobic filter, AFBR Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor, UASB Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, COD Chemical oxygen demand, HRT Hydraulic retention time.

Combustion Standards under RCRA

Emissions from combustion units may comprise a variety of hazardous pollutants. To minimize potential harmful effects of these pollutants, U.S. EPA developed performance standards to regulate four pollutant categories 2. Hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas Boilers and most industrial furnaces have performance standards that they must meet. For each category or type of emission, the regulations establish compliance methods and alternatives. Because the primary purpose of a combustion unit is to...

Capture Concentration Techniques

9.3.3.41 Capture Concentration with Full Reuse of Drag-Out The pioneer in simple, low-cost methods of reducing waste in the plating shop was Dr. Joseph B. Kushner.9 In Water and Waste Control for the Plating Shop (1972), he describes a simple waste recovery system that captures drag-out in a static tank or tanks for return to the plating bath. The drag-out tanks are followed by a rinse tank that flows to the sewer with only trace amounts of polluting salts and is often in compliance with sewer...

Chemical Treatment Process

This treatment process involves the use of chemical compounds to initiate a chemical reaction in the wastewater stream, which ends up neutralizing negatively charged colloids and thus, causing changes that would alter the nature of the wastewater, particularly to conform to the standard of wastewater discharge.4 The treatment process possesses an inherent disadvantage, especially net increase in the dissolved constituents of the wastewater, which can hinder reuse of the wastewater.2 Common...

Craig R Worden Gregory T Kleinheinz and Todd R Sandrin

11.1 Biological Functions of Heavy Metals 11.2 Microbial Response to Metals 11.2.1 Genome-Based Approaches to Investigating Microbial Metal Resistance Mechanisms 11.3 Effect of Metals on Microbial Processes 11.3.1 Metals and General Soil Microbiological Processes 11.3.2 Metals and Bioremediation 11.4 Metal Speciation 11.4.1 Measurement of Bioavailable Metal Species 11.4.2 Effect of Medium Composition on Metal Speciation and Toxicity 417 11.4.3 Effect of pH on Metal Speciation and Toxicity 11.5...

Costs of SVE Treatment of MTBE

Project cost data were reported for 24 of the 138 SVE projects in the dataset. In most cases, the components that make up the project costs were not reported. However, it is likely that these incorporate different components, such as treatment, monitoring, design, oversight, and health and safety. The median reported total cost for all SVE projects was approximately USD206,000, with most projects having a total cost between USD100,000 and USD400,000. The unit cost of SVE was reported in one...

Contents

24.1 Introduction 24.2 Background 24.2.1 Fuel Oxygenates 24.2.2 Sources of Oxygenates in the Environment 24.2.3 Prevalence of Contamination by Oxygenates in the Environment 990 24.2.4 Concerns about Contamination with 24.2.5 Assessment of Oxygenates in the Environment 24.2.6 Migration of Oxygenates in the 24.2.7 Effect of Oxygenates, Properties on Their Treatment 24.2.8 Types of Technologies for Treatment of Soil, Groundwater, and Drinking Water Contaminated with Oxygenates 24.2.9 The Use of...

Contaminant Properties Relevant to MPE

BTEX constituents Ether-based oxygenates (such as MTBE) Alcohol-based oxygenates (such as TBA) Solubility into H2O from Gasoline (mg L) Source Adapted from U.S. EPA, Technologies for Treating MTBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates, EPA 542-R-04-009, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, May 2004. generalization is that certain alcohol-based oxygenates, specifically TBA and ethanol, may be less readily removed in the vapor phase because of their relatively low vapor pressures....

Concrete Aggregate Test Procedures

Property Test Method Specification Concrete made by volumetric batching and continuous mixing Terminology related to concrete and concrete aggregates Sizes of aggregate for road and bridge construction Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregate Specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate Specific gravity and absorption of fine aggregate Flat and elongated particles in coarse aggregate Uncompacted voids content of fine aggregate Index of aggregate particle shape and texture Resistance...

Direct Injection Wells Trenches

In a direct injection system, degradation is enhanced through the addition of microbes, nutrients, electron acceptors, or electron donors directly into the aquifer at injection points or directly into the soil. Direct injection technologies include those that employ injection wells or trenches through which supplements are introduced. Some common direct injection technologies use chemical or electrochemical means to increase the level of oxygen in the groundwater, or inject microorganisms that...

Effect of metals on microbial processes

Even with all of these mechanisms in place for metal resistance, microbes remain susceptible to heavy metals at high concentrations. In the environment, heavy metal toxicity affects many important processes mediated by microorganisms, including litter decomposition,61-63 methanogenesis,64-66 acidogenesis,67,68 nitrogen transformation,69-71 enzymatic activity,72-74 and biodegradation of organics75 76 (Table 11.2). 11.3.1 Metals and General Soil Microbiological Processes Many studies have...

Design and Construction

Conventional structural design and construction procedures for a construction are generally applicable to a construction incorporating foundry solid wastes. The same production methods and equipment used for conventional manufacture can be used for production of manufacture using foundry solid waste. From an engineering perspective, recycled materials should be used in such a manner that the expected performance of the product will not be compromised. Waste and byproduct materials, however,...

Definitions of Terms Used in Chemical Fate Modeling

Algorithm The numerical technique embodied in the computer code. Calibration A test of a model with known input and output information that is used to adjust or estimate factors for which data are not available. Computer code The assembly of numerical techniques, bookkeeping, and control languages that represents the model from acceptance of input data and instruction to delivery of output. Model An assembly of concepts in the form of a mathematical equation that portrays understanding of a...

Delivery Approaches

Groundwater well injection Oxidants may be introduced to the treatment zone through existing or new groundwater monitoring wells as a liquid, gas, or solid. This method relies on the natural migration of oxidants from the well into the formation. Injection wells need to be adequately spaced to allow for oxidant delivery to the entire treatment area. Groundwater recirculation A groundwater recirculation system may be used to extract groundwater from within or at the downgradient edge of the...

Control of Hazardous Gas Emission

EPA, the techniques that are used to control air pollution include the following15 1. Covering surface impoundments 2. Passive perimeter gas control systems 3. Active perimeter gas control systems 4. Active interior gas collection recovery systems Covering surface impoundments is important for the control of hazardous gases emission. A common covering method places a barrier at the water-air interface to reduce gaseous emissions. The technology available includes lagoon...

Forging

Of the approximately 15 aluminum forging plants, three use wet scrubbers to control particulates and smoke generated from the partial combustion of oil-based lubricants in the forging process. Summary of Wastewater Flows Reported for Aluminum Forming Industry Processes Summary of Wastewater Flows Reported for Aluminum Forming Industry Processes Source U.S. EPA, Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Aluminum Forming Point Source Category, Vols. 1 & 2,...

Exemptions

Not all units that meet the definition of boiler or industrial furnace are subject to the BIF standards. The individual unit must first be evaluated against a number of exemptions found in the applicability FIGURE 23.2 The dry process of a typical cement kiln. (1) Ground limestone and other raw materials are placed in rotating kiln, (2) the ground materials are heated by fuel (which can include hazardous wastes), introduced at the opposite end of the kiln, and (3) the final product, called...

Drawing

The term drawing, when it applies to the manufacture of tube, rod, bar, or wire, refers to the pulling of metal through a die or succession of dies to reduce its diameter, alter the cross-sectional shape, or increases its hardness. In the drawing of aluminum tubing, one end of the extruded tube is swaged to form a solid point and then passed through the die. A clamp, known as a bogie, grips the swaged end of tubing. A mandrel is inserted into the die orifice, and the tubing is pulled between...

Emerging Technologies

Apart from the conventional biological treatment systems discussed above, there are several emerging technologies for the food industry wastewater. The use of different types of membrane bioreac-tors (MBRs) is one of them. The MBR process can be considered as a modification to the activated sludge process that we have discussed above. Usually, the membrane module is submerged in the bioreactor.44,45 The incorporation of membrane modules is not limited with aerobic systems, but it is possible to...

Flowable Fill

Flowable fill refers to cementitious slurry created by blending fine aggregate or filler, water, and cementitious material(s), and is used primarily as a backfill in lieu of compacted soil. This mixture is capable of filling all voids in irregular excavations (such as utility trenches) and inaccessible places (such as narrow cavities), is self-leveling, self-setting, and hardens in a matter of a few hours without the need for compaction in layers. Flowable fill is sometimes referred to as...

Editors

Wang has over 25 years of experience in facility design, plant construction, operation, and management. He has expertise in water supply, air pollution control, solid waste disposal, water resources, waste treatment, hazardous waste management, and site remediation. He is a retired dean director of both the Lenox Institute of Water Technology and Krofta Engineering Corporation, Lenox, Massachusetts, and a retired vice president of Zorex Corporation, Newtonville, New York. Dr. Wang...

Factors to Be Considered When Identifying Technologies to Treat Fuel Oxygenates

Table 24.6 summarizes the general factors to be considered when identifying technologies to treat sites contaminated with fuel oxygenates. These general factors were developed based on the U.S. EPA's data from the 323 technology applications,31 as well as from the Remediation Technology Screening Matrix and Reference Guide34 and other industry references. As shown in Table 24.6, these general factors include type of treatment, relative time to complete, and relative cost. Table 24.7 summarizes...

Estimated Volume of Deep Well Injected Wastes by Industrial Category

Petroleum refining and petrochemical products year. The remaining 24 was divided among six other industrial categories miscellaneous chemical products, agricultural chemical products, inorganic chemical products, commercial disposal, metals and minerals, and aerospace and related industry. Although the general composition of each shipment of wastes to an injection well may be known, a number of factors makes it difficult to characterize fully the overall composition of industrial wastewaters at...

Effective BMPs

Numerous practices have been developed to eliminate or minimize discharges of pollutants from the metal finishing industry. Successful source reduction measures have been implemented to eliminate cyanide plating baths, as well as substitute more toxic solvents with less toxic cleaners. In many cases, cleaning with solvents has been eliminated altogether through the use of water-based cleaning supplemented with detergents, heating, and or agitation. Other source reduction measures have been...

Embankment or Fill Material Test Procedures

Compacted density (in-place density) Particle size analysis of soils ASTM D422 Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregate ASTM D136 Unit weight and voids in aggregate ASTM D29 Specific gravity of soils ASTM D854 Relative density of cohesionless soils ASTM D2049 Maximum index density of soils using a vibratory table ASTM D4253 Minimum index density of soils and calculation of relative density ASTM D4254 Moisture-density relations of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures using ASTM D698 5.5 lb (2.49...

Effect of Oxygenates Properties on Their Treatment

The properties of MTBE and other oxygenates, including water solubility, vapor pressure, soil adsorption coefficient, retardation factor, and Henry's law constant, affect their fate and transport in the environment relative to other contaminants. These same properties also affect the selection and design of remediation technologies used to address soil and water contaminated with oxygenates. In general, the same types of treatment technologies have been applied for the treatment of BTEX and...

Feasibility STUDY

Scoping is the initial planning phase of site remediation and is a part of the funding allocation and planning process.12 Scoping of the RI FS comprises the following steps 2. Developing the conceptual site model 3. Identifying the initial project operable unit, likely response scenarios, and remedial action objects 4. Initiating potential federal state ARARs identification 5. Identifying initial data quality objectives There are 12 tasks involved in project planning 1. Conducting project...

Full Regulation

Most recycled hazardous wastes are subject to full hazardous waste regulation. This means that handlers of these recyclable materials (i.e., persons who generate, transport, or store these prior to recycling) are subject to the same regulations as handlers who are managing hazardous wastes prior to disposal. While management of the hazardous wastes prior to recycling is subject to regulation, the recycling process itself is exempt from RCRA (except for some air emission standards). For example,...

Industrial Process Description

This section specifically contains a description of commonly used production processes, associated raw materials, the byproducts produced or released, and the materials either recycled or transferred offsite. This discussion, coupled with schematic drawings of the identified processes, provide a concise description of where wastes may be produced in the process. Primary lead production consists of four steps sintering, smelting, drossing, and pyrometallurgical refining (Figure 3.4). To begin, a...

Emission Standards For Combustors

EPA promulgated action plans for the removal of hazardous substances from the environment by reducing air pollutants from HWCs. U.S. EPA's NESHAPs28,29 achieve significant long-term ecological and human health benefits without imposing significant regulatory burdens on HWCs. The NESHAPs were issued by U.S. EPA for air quality protection from HWCs. The standards implement a section of the CAA by requiring HWCs to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of the MACT.30 The...

Good Housekeeping

Good housekeeping is essentially the maintenance of a clean, orderly work environment. Maintaining an orderly facility means that materials and equipment are neat and well kept to prevent releases to the environment. Maintaining a clean facility involves the expeditious remediation of releases to the environment. Together, these terms clean and orderly define a good housekeeping program.5 Maintaining good housekeeping is the heart of a facility's overall pollution control effort. Good...

Effect of pH on Metal Speciation and Toxicity

Free, ionic species of metals are at their highest concentrations at lower pH, so metals tend to be more bioavailable under these conditions.121,128 At acidic pH, more protons are available to saturate metal-binding sites.99 For example, metals are less likely to form insoluble precipitates with phosphates when the pH of the system is lowered because much of the phosphate has been protonated. Under basic conditions, metal ions can replace protons to form other species, such as hydroxo-metal...

Furnace Slag 4261 Origin

In the melting process, metal scraps and fluxes (limestone or dolomite) are charged into a furnace, sometimes along with coke for fuel if a blast furnace is used. Upon heating using electricity (arc furnace) or burning (blast furnace), scraps are melted into a molten phase. The metal is subsequently gravimetrically separated from the composite flux, leaving the residual slag. Flux is used to adequately render the slag fluid so that it can be separated from the molten iron, and it then flows...

Geochemical Characteristics Of Hazardous Wastes

This section relates the chemical characteristics of inorganic and organic hazardous wastes to the important fate-influencing geochemical processes occurring in the deep-well environment. 20.5.1 Inorganic versus Organic Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are broadly classified as either organic or inorganic. Carbon is the central building block of organic wastes, whereas inorganic wastes are compounds formed by elements other than carbon (except for a few carbon-containing compounds such as...

Industry description

8.1.1 Historical Cultural Development Enameling is an old and widelyadopted technology.1-9 The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to pottery and stone objects. The ancient Greeks, Celts, Russians, and Chinese also used enameling processes on metal objects.9 Enameling was also used to decorate glass vessels during the Roman period, and there is evidence of this as early as the late Republican and early Imperial periods in the Levantine, Egypt, Britain, and the Black Sea.1 Enamel powder could be...

Foundation Walls in Crawlspace Houses

Foundation walls in ventilated crawlspaces are substantially different from walls in basements and unventilated crawlspaces. In basements and slab-on-grade buildings, it is clear that barriers should be applied between the soil and the foundation or be the foundation itself. With ventilated crawlspaces, there are two locations that present themselves for the application of barriers. First, as in the other, barriers can be placed between the soil and the foundation. Second, a barrier effort can...

Forming And Finishing 271 Process Overview

In forming operations the ingots, slabs, billets, and blooms obtained after casting are further processed to produce strip, sheets, plate, bar, rod, or other structural shapes through various hot forming and sometimes cold forming operations, depending on the final product. In hot forming operations, preheated (typically in the range of 1800 F), solidified steel is reduced in cross-section through a series of forming steps by applying mechanical pressure through work rolls to produce...

Groundwater Extraction for Pumpand Treat and Drinking Water Treatment

Groundwater pump-and-treat involves the extraction of groundwater from a contaminant plume and the treatment of extracted water using one or more aboveground technologies. Drinking water treatment systems where the extracted water is contaminated with fuel oxygenates involve many of the same activities as groundwater pump-and-treat. In general, the methods for extraction of the ground-water are not linked to or limited by the aboveground (ex situ) treatment technologies. This section focuses on...

Hazardous Waste Recycling Used Oil And Universal Wastes

RCRA hazardous wastes do not cease to be dangerous simply because they are being reused, recycled, or reclaimed. Many hazardous waste recycling operations may pose serious health and environmental hazards and should be subject to regulation. Reuse, recycling, and reclamation should be viewed instead as ways of managing hazardous wastes, which, if properly conducted, can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, and reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy....

Hazardous Wastes Regulations Governing Generators Transporters And Tsdfs

Under RCRA, hazardous waste generators are the first link in the cradle-to-grave hazardous waste management system. All generators must determine whether their waste is hazardous and must oversee the ultimate fate of the waste. RCRA requires generators to ensure and fully document that the hazardous waste they produce is properly identified, managed, and treated prior to recycling or disposal. The degree of regulation to which each generator is subject depends to a large extent on how much...

General Management and Disposal of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Waste Appliances

Refrigerators, deep freezers, ice machines equipped with a circulation system, mobile air conditioners, dehumidifiers, and so on are discussed in this section. The cooling circuit of these appliances contains refrigerants. The most common are CFCs, ammonia, or pentane. In many types of refrigerators, the circulation system also contains oil. Other components are metals (steel, aluminum, and copper), plastics (housings, drawers, and shelves), polyurethane (PU) insulation, polystyrene (PS)...

Hazardous Wastes

Spent pickle liquor is considered a hazardous waste (K062) because it contains considerable residual acidity and high concentrations of dissolved iron salts. For example, spent pickle liquor and waste acid from the production of stainless steel is considered hazardous. The hazardous constituents in K062 are lead, nickel, and hexavalent chromium. Waste pickle liquor sludge generated by lime stabilization of spent pickle liquor is not considered hazardous unless it exhibits one or more of the...

Handling Management And Disposal Of Electrical And Electronic Wastes The Switzerland Experience

Each country establishes its own ordinance on the handling, disposal, and general management of electrical and electronic wastes. The Swiss government has established the Ordinance on Return, Taking Back, and Disposal of Electrical and Electronic Appliances (ORDEA), which forms the legal framework allowing the industrial and commercial sectors to establish tailored and efficient return and recycling schemes.4 Switzerland's Ordinance takes into account the regulations on cooperation between the...

Ntroduction

Radon is a naturally occurring, chemically inert, radioactive gas. It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It is part of the uranium-238 decay series, the direct decay product of radium-226. Radon moves to the earth's surface through tiny openings and cracks in soil and rocks. High concentrations of radon can be found in soils derived from uranium-bearing rocks, such as pitchblende and some phosphates, granites, shales, and limestones. It may be found also in soils contaminated with certain...

Industrial Processes In The Iron And Steel Industry

Steel is an alloy of iron, usually containing less than 1 carbon. The process of steel production occurs in several sequential steps. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) are two types of technology in use today for steel making. Although these technologies use different input materials, the output from both furnace types is in the form of molten steel that is further processed into steel mill products. The BOF input materials include molten iron, scrap, and oxygen....

Hazardous Waste Recycling

The hazardous waste identification process (as discussed in Chapter 1) describes how to determine whether a material is a solid and hazardous waste. How a material is regulated under RCRA (i.e., whether or not it is a solid and potentially a hazardous waste) when it is recycled depends on what type of material it is and what type of recycling is occurring. If the recycled material is not a solid waste, then it is not a hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA Subtitle C requirements. However,...

Injection Facility Overview

The Hercules Chemical, Inc. (now Hercufina, Inc.), facility, 4 miles north of Wilmington, North Carolina, attempted deep-well injection of its hazardous wastes from May 1968 to December 1972, but had to discontinue injection because of waste-reservoir incompatibility and unfavorable hydro-geologic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted extensive geochemical studies of this site until the well was abandoned.102 177-179 Biodegradation processes were also studied.170 More...

Introduction

The technology of deep-well injection has been around for more than 70 years. Most Americans would be surprised to know that there is a waste management system already in operation in the U.S. that has no emissions into the air, no discharges to surface water, and no off-site transfers, and exposes people and the environment to virtually no hazards.1 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has stated that Class 1 wells are safer than virtually all other waste disposal practices for...

Industry Size and Geographic Distribution

Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal after iron, aluminum, and copper (lead is fifth). In abundant supply world-wide, zinc is mined and produced mainly in Canada, the former Soviet Union, Australia, Peru, Mexico, and the U.S. Historically, in the U.S. recoverable zinc has been mined in 19 states Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. Nearly...

Injection ConfiningZone Lithology and Chemistry

The lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer is used as the injection zone (at 430 to 520 m), and the Bucatunna clay member of the Byram formation (about 67 m thick) serves as the confining layer. Figure 20.11 shows the stratigraphy of the area, and Figure 20.12 shows the local stratigraphy and the monitoring well installations. The formation water in the injection zone is a highly saline (11,900 to 13,700 mg L TDS) sodium-chloride solution. The Eh of samples collected from two monitoring wells...

Inputs and Outputs of the Steel Making Operation EAF

Scrap metal Direct reduced iron Hot briquetted iron Cold pig iron Hot metal Alloy materials (e.g., aluminum, manganese, chromium, nickel) Fluxes (e.g., lime) Electricity Oxygen Nitrogen Natural gas Oil EAF emission control dust and sludge (K061) Source From U.S. EPA, Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry, EPA 310-R-95-005, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 1995. as oil, grease, and other combustible materials evolve from the surface of the scrap. In the presence of sufficient oxygen these compounds...

K

Sabljia132 presents very accurate equations for predicting the Koc of both polar and nonpolar organic molecules based on molecular topology, provided the organic matter percentage exceeds 0.1 . Karickhoff133 discusses in detail adsorption processes of organic pollutants in relation to Koc. Winters and Lee134 describe a physically based model for adsorption kinetics for hydrophobic organic chemicals to and from suspended sediment and soil particles. The model requires determination of a single...

Khim Hoong Chu Eui Yong Kim and Yung Tse Hung

17.1 Introduction 17.2 Description of Horseradish Peroxidase 17.3 Model Development 17.3.1 Catalytic Cycle and Inactivation of HRP 17.3.2 Proposed Reaction Mechanism 17.3.3 Derivation of the Reaction Rate Equation 17.4 Parameter Estimation and Model Validation 17.4.1 Experimental Data 17.4.2 Parameter Estimation 17.4.3 Model Validation 17.5 Model Simulation 17.5.1 Dependence of the Reaction Rate on PCP Concentration 17.5.2 Dependence of the Reaction Rate on H2O2 Concentration 678 17.5.3...

Introduction And Background

For many years a large part of industrial pollution control has been carried out essentially on an end-of-pipe basis, and a wide range of unit processes (physical, chemical, and biological) have been developed to service the needs of the industry. Such end-of-pipe systems range from low intensity to high intensity arrangements, from low technology to high technology, and from low cost to high cost. Most end-of-pipe systems are destructive processes in that they provide no return to the...

Interim Status Facilities

To qualify for interim status, the facility must have been in existence on or before August 21, 1991, and must have submitted a Part A permit application by this date. If the facility already had a permit for another activity, owners operators must have submitted a permit modification under interim status. If the facility was already operating under interim status for another activity, then it was required to comply with the requirements for changes under interim status. Until U.S. EPA calls in...