Reservoir Matrix

With few, if any, exceptions, deep-well injection zones will be sedimentary rock, and the reactions that take place when hazardous wastes are injected are determined largely by the physical and chemical properties of that rock. The most important physical properties of sedimentary rocks in relation to deep-well geochemical interactions are texture (the proportions of different sized particles in sediment) and specific surface area. The most important chemical property is mineralogy, defined by...

References

Energetics, Inc., Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry, DOE EE-0229, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 2000. 2. G lvez, J.L., Dufour, J., Negro, C., and Lopez-Mateos, F. Determination of iron and chromium fluorides solubility for the treatment of wastes from stainless steel mill, Chem. Eng. J., doi 10.1016 j.cej 03.014, 2007. 3. Heard, R.A. and Roth, J.L. Optimizing energy in electric furnace steel-making, Iron and Steel Engineer, April 1998. 4....

Processes Affecting The Geochemical Fate Of Deepwellinjected Wastes

This section examines the major processes that affect the fate of deep-well-injected hazardous wastes. The focus is on processes that (1) are known to occur in the deep-well environment or (2) have not been directly observed but are theoretically possible. 20.3.1 Overview of Fate-Influencing Processes in Chemical Systems 20.3.1.1 Key Characteristics of Chemical Systems A chemical system is a mixture of individual components. Chemical systems can be described by interactions that occur within...

Overview Of Treatment Technologies

This section contains an overview of the nine technologies that have been used to treat sites contaminated with MTBE and other fuel oxygenates The comparison is based primarily on information reported on the 323 MTBE remediation technology projects at U.S. EPA's MTBE Treatment Profile website31 as well as information available from published literature sources.

Operations and pollution control

Cleaner Production means the conceptual and procedural approach to production that demands that all phases of the life-cycle of a product or of a process should be addressed with the objectives of prevention of pollution and minimization of short- and long-term risks to humans and the environment. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of the Canmaking Subcategory that Establish the Quantity or Quality of Pollutants or Pollutant Properties NSPS g (lb) 106 Cans Manufactured Maximum for Any...

MPE at Sparks Solvent Fuel Site Sparks Nevada

Since 1995, the sparks solvent fuel site located in Sparks, Nevada, a remediation system consisting of MPE, air sparging, and SVE, has been operational. The treatment system consists of 29 MPE wells, an oil-water separator, and a fluidized bed bioreactor, with an influent flow rate of 23.3 L s (370 gpm) and a retention time of 8 min. Vapors are sent through a condenser, followed by a thermal oxidizer, before its release to the atmosphere. Condensate is sent back through the oil-water separator....

Jos Luis Campos Gmez Anuska Mosquera Corral Ramn Mndez Pampn and Yung Tse Hung

19.1 Generation of Wastewater 19.1.1 Production Process 19.1.2 Characterization of the Effluent 19.2 Biological Treatment 19.2.1 Biological Processes and Strategies 19.2.2 Interactions between Biological Processes and Compounds 764 19.3 Technologies for Wastewater Treatment 19.3.1 Anaerobic Treatment 19.3.2 Aerobic Treatment 19.3.3 Treatment Combining Nitrification and Denitrification Units 773 19.4 Guidelines for the Design of a Wastewater Treatment Plant for Wastewater Containing Formaldehyde...

In Situ Bioremediation 2471 Bioremediation Process

Bioremediation is a process by which microorganisms, fungi, and plants metabolize pollutant chemicals.52,53 It has been used to treat oxygenates in soil and groundwater both in situ and ex situ. Generally, an engineered bioremediation system stimulates the biodegradation of contaminants through the introduction of electron acceptors (typically oxygen), electron donors (substrates or food sources), nutrients, or microbes54 that are acclimated to the contaminated soil or groundwater. These...

Hydrodynamic Dispersion

Hydrodynamic dispersion refers to the net effect of a variety of microscopic, macroscopic, and regional conditions that affect the spread of a solute front through an aquifer.58 Quantifying the dispersion is important to fate assessment because contaminants can move more rapidly through an aquifer by this process than would be predicted by simple plugflow (i.e., uniform movement of water through an aquifer with a vertical front). In other words, physical conditions (such as more-permeable...

Examples from LDR Technology Based Standards

Recovery of metals RORGS Recovery of organics STABL Stabilization Biodegradation uses microorganisms to break down organic compounds to make a waste less toxic Chemical reduction converts metal and inorganic constituents in wastewater into insoluble precipitates that are later settled out of the wastewater, leaving a lower concentration of metals and inorganics in the wastewater Combustion destroys organic wastes or makes them less hazardous through burning in boilers, industrial furnaces, or...

Effect of Medium Composition on Metal Speciation and Toxicity

Many different chemical components in a microbiological medium may interact with metals. Results of many studies of metal toxicity are often not directly comparable due to the wide range of media used. Some varieties of complex biological media contain metal-binding components, such as yeast and beef extract, peptone, and amino acids.99 These complex ingredients may differ slightly in their exact chemical composition among batches, so it is difficult to accurately and consistently determine...

Chemical Processes Observed

As a result of dissolution of the limestone by the partly neutralized acid wastes, calcium concentrations more than doubled in the near-deep monitoring well 10 months after injection started in 1963.67 In early 1966, however, they dropped to background levels (about 200 mg L), possibly in response to biochemical decomposition of the waste. In September 1968, after about 300 million gallons of the acidic, unneutralized waste had been injected, the calcium concentration began to increase again....

Concentration of 14 Regulated Elements in Electric Arc Furnace Dust

< 0.05-106,000 1.3-139,000 < 0.001-41 < 10-22,000 Source From U.S. EPA, Final BDAT Background Document for K061, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, August 1988. 2. Onsite processing by agglomerating or briquetting and directly recycling back through the EAF (to concentrate the zinc content) 3. Onsite processing in a separate processing facility to glassify or vitrify the heavy metal content 4. Onsite processing using hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical processes to upgrade the zinc values to...

General Management and Disposal of Large Electrical Waste Appliances

Large electrically powered domestic waste appliances, such as cookers, ovens, washing machines and other cleaning appliances, mobile electrical heaters, and ventilators come under the category of large electrical waste appliances. The electricity for the large waste electrical appliances is supplied by the electrical mains. These large electrical waste appliances consist mainly of iron, copper, aluminum, and insulation materials. The insulation materials are mostly inorganic. The electronic...

Migration of Oxygenates in the Environment

MTBE and other oxygenates typically enter the environment blended with gasoline or other refined fuel products. However, these oxygenates migrate differently within the environment because of the differences in physical properties between oxygenates and the other components of gasoline, such as BTEX, of which benzene is typically the most common contaminant of concern. Table 24.2 contains a summary of some properties that influence the migration of MTBE and other oxygenates in the environment....

Introduction

Rcra Cradle Grave

Once, the amount of waste produced in the United States was small and its impact on the environment was viewed as relatively minor. Times have changed. With the industrial revolution in the late 1800s, the country began to experience unparalleled growth. New products were developed, and the consumer was offered an ever-expanding array of material goods. This growth continued through the early twentieth century and accelerated after World War II when the nation's industrial base, strengthened by...

RCRA Subtitle D Solid Waste

RCRA's solid waste management program encourages environmentally sound solid waste management practices that maximize the reuse of recoverable material and foster resource recovery. The term solid waste is very broad, including not only the traditional nonhazardous solid wastes, such as municipal garbage, but also some hazardous wastes. RCRA Subtitle D addresses solid wastes, including those hazardous wastes that are excluded from the Subtitle C regulations (e.g., household hazardous waste) and...

General Management and Disposal of Small Electrical Waste Appliances

The category of small electrical waste appliances comprises electrical appliances such as electric razors, music players, hair-removing appliances, hair dryers, egg boilers, immersion water heaters, coffee grinders, and so on. They are generally composed of plastics, ferrous, and nonferrous metals. A large proportion of these small appliances is powered by batteries or accumulators. The objectives of disposal of small electrical waste appliances are simple (a) stripping of hazardous substances...

Lawrence K Wang Nazih K Shammas Donald B Aulenbach and William A Selke

6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Nickel-Chromium Plating Process 6.2.1 Nickel Plating 6.2.2 Chromium Plating 6.3 Sources of Pollution 6.3.1 Environmental Impact of Nickel 6.3.2 Environmental Impact of Chromium 6.4 Waste Minimization 6.4.1 Assessment of Hazardous Waste 6.4.2 Improved Procedures and Segregation of Wastes 6.4.3 Material Substitution 6.4.4 Extending Process Bath Life 6.4.5 Dragout Reduction 6.4.6 Reactive Rinses 6.5 Material Recovery and Recycling 6.5.1 Dragout Recovery 6.5.2 Evaporative...

Treatment and Management of Metal Finishing Industry Wastes

Wang 9.1 Industry Description 9.1.1 General Description 9.1.2 Subcategory Descriptions 9.2 Wastewater Characterization 9.2.1 Common Metals Subcategory 9.2.2 Precious Metals Subcategory 9.2.3 Complexed Metals Subcategory 9.2.4 Cyanide Subcategory 9.2.5 Hexavalent Chromium Subcategory 9.2.6 Oils Subcategory 9.2.7 Solvent Subcategory 9.3 Source Reduction 9.3.1 Chemical Substitution 9.3.2 Waste Segregation 9.3.3 Process Modifications to Reduce Drag-Out Loss 9.3.4...

Nazih K Shammas and Lawrence K Wang

Compact Landfill Liner

26.1 Overview of Regulations for Hazardous Waste 26.1.1 Double Liners and LCRSs 26.1.2 Leak Detection Systems 26.1.3 Closure and Final Cover 26.1.4 Construction Quality Assurance 26.1.5 Summary of Minimum Technology Requirements 26.2 Liner Design Clay Liners 26.2.1 Materials 26.2.2 Clay Liners versus Composite Liners 26.2.3 Darcy's Law, Dispersion, and Diffusion 26.2.4 Laboratory Tests for Hydraulic Conductivity 26.2.5 Field Hydraulic Conductivity Testing 26.2.6 Field Tests versus Laboratory...

Multimedia waste management in the coil coating industry

In the U.S., the Clean Air Act regulates the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (40 CFR Part 60) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (40 CFR Part 61 and 40 CFR Part 63). Total Annual Unit Cost for BPT Level of Treatment in 2008 U.S. Dollars Total Annual Unit Cost for BPT Level of Treatment in 2008 U.S. Dollars Source U.S. EPA, Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Coil Coating Point Source Category (Canmaking Subcategory), Final report 440...

Costs of Remediation Technologies

Table 24.5 summarizes the cost information reported for 127 MTBE remediation technology applications. Only costs reported as total project costs are summarized in this table. Note that these include both completed and ongoing projects. Because of the wide variation in the components that were included in the reported total project costs, these data should only be used as a general reference about costs and should not be used as a sole basis to estimate costs for future MTBE remediation projects...

Trickling Filter Process

Trickling filter systems are classified under the aerobic attached growth systems (Figure 30.7). Crushed rock and stone, slag, wood, or synthetic media with higher permeability are used to fill the filter bed. The size of the media is in the range of 25-100 mm diameter. The depth of the filter FIGURE 30.6 Schematic diagram of the activated sludge process. FIGURE 30.6 Schematic diagram of the activated sludge process. FIGURE 30.7 Flow diagram of the trickling filter. FIGURE 30.7 Flow diagram of...

Wastewater Characterization

Water is used in the chrome pigment industry mainly to cool most of the equipment such as heat exchangers, generate steam in the boilers, make slurry of raw materials, scrub the reactor vent gases, and wash the precipitated products. Wastewater generated as a result of water use varies in quantity of pollutant, which is directly related to the raw materials use. Generally, these wastewaters contain dissolved chromium and pigment particles. Wastewaters emanating from the chrome yellow and chrome...

Mixing Proportions of Flowable Fill with Spend Foundry Sand kgm3

Cement Fly Ash Spend Foundry Sand Water Source From Deng, A., Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material, PhD Dissertation of the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, August 2004. The primary characteristic necessary for a liner, cover, or cutoff wall is low permeability, which essentially enables them to slow down the seepage or diffusion of chemicals. Clay is therefore the main material used to construct these...

Masonry Walls with Termite Caps Solid Blocks and Filled Block Tops

Builders may construct a foundation wall with solid, filled, or sealed block tops for several reasons, including termite-proofing, energy conservation, distribution of weight of the structure, and radon resistance. The NCMA28 recommends that a solid or grouted top course be installed to distribute the loads of joists and beams. Some building codes require solid tops to block hidden termite entry. In spite of this, the block tops in many residences are left open except at anchor points. Houses...

Lawrence K Wang Daniel Guss and Milos Krofta

27.1 Introduction 27.1.1 Summary 27.1.2 Problems of an Existing Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment System 27.1.3 Application of Secondary Flotation Clarification as an Engineering 27.1.4 Objectives of the Engineering Research and Documentations 1157 27.2 DAF and DAFF Clarifiers 27.2.1 Commercially Available DAF and DAFF Clarifiers for Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems 27.2.2 General Operational Description of DAF and DAFF 27.3 Improved Biological Treatment System 27.3.1 General...

Emergency Planning and Community Rightto Know

Congress amended CERCLA in 1986 with the enactment of the SARA. These amendments improved the Superfund program and added an important section that focused on strengthening the rights of citizens and communities in the face of potential hazardous substance emergencies. This section, SARA Title III, or the EPCRA, was enacted in response to the more than 2000 deaths caused by the release of a toxic chemical in Bhopal, India. EPCRA22 is intended to help communities prepare to respond in the event...

Management Reuse Recycle and Disposal of Vehicle Batteries

Every year in the United States, billions of batteries are bought, used, and thrown out. In 1998 alone, over 3 billion industrial and household batteries were sold. The demand for batteries can be traced largely to the rapid increase in automobiles, cordless, portable products such as cellular phones, video cameras, laptop computers, and battery-powered tools and toys. Because many batteries contain toxic constituents such as mercury and cadmium, they pose a potential threat to human health and...

Typical Types of Household Batteries

Cassettes players, radios, appliances Flashlights, toys, etc. Cameras, calculators, watches, computers, etc. Hearing aids, pacemakers, cameras, calculators, watches, etc. Hearing aids, watches, cameras, calculators Hearing aids, pagers Cameras, rechargeable appliances such as portable power tools, hand-held vacuums, etc. Camcorders, computers, portable radios, and tape players, cellular phones, lawn mower starters, etc. Battery manufacturers are producing more rechargeable batteries each year....

An Deng Yung Tse Hung and Lawrence K Wang

Flowchart Grey Iron Foundry

4.1 Industry Description 4.1.1 Casting Flow 4.1.2 Casting 4.1.3 Sand Casting Systems 4.1.4 Casting Metals 4.2 Characterization of Wastes 4.2.1 General 4.2.2 Air Emission 4.2.3 Wastewater 4.2.4 Spent Foundry Sand 4.2.5 Baghouse Dust 4.2.6 Furnace Slag 4.3 Source Reduction 4.3.1 Chemical Substitution or Minimization 4.3.2 In-Plant Reclamation 4.3.3 Waste Segregation 4.3.4 Process Modifications to Reduce Emission 4.4 Solid Wastes Reuse Technologies 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Reuse Evaluation Framework...

Typical Physical Properties of Nonferrous Slags

Black, glassy, more vesicular when granulated Reddish brown to brown-black, massive, angular, amorphous texture 3500 0.37 Black to red, glassy, sharp angular (cubical) particles Source From MNR, Mineral Aggregate Conservation, Reuse and Recycling, report for Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada, February 1992. JEGEL, Manitoba Slags, Deposits, Characterization, Modifications, Potential Utilization, report, John Emery Geotechnical Engineering Limited, Toronto, Ontario, 1986....

Gloria Sanchez Galvan and Eugenia J Olguin contents

10.1 Introduction 10.2 Rhizofiltration 10.3 Constructed Wetlands and Lagoons 10.3.1 Lagoons with Free-Floating Plants 10.3.2 Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands 10.3.3 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands 10.4 Bioadsorbents-Based 10.5 Conclusions References Surface water and groundwater may become contaminated with hazardous compounds as a consequence of natural and human activities. Pollutants of concern are both inorganic (heavy metals, radionuclides, nitrogen, phosphorous, etc.) and organic...

Bioadsorbentsbased systems

Current reviews on biosorption are related to general approaches90-93 to diverse types of biomass such as microbial biomass, plant wastes, and agro-based waste materials, or to a specific metal.494-98 However, a review on metal biosorption using macrophytes biomass is not available. In this chapter, a review on the current knowledge of biosorption using preferentially nonliving biomass from aquatic plants is presented. Biosorption is a property of both living and dead organisms and may be...

Treatment of Battery Manufacturing Wastes

Aircraft Ion Battery Construction

Hawumba, Yung-Tse Hung, and Lawrence K. Wang 32.1 Introduction 32.1.1 Historical, Cultural, and Battery Technology Development 1303 32.2 Overview of the Manufacturing Process 32.2.1 Manufacturing Process 32.3 Battery Chemical Systems 32.3.1 Battery Classification 32.4 Description of Battery Subcategories in the Battery Industry of 32.4.2 Subcategory A Cadmium 32.4.3 Subcategory C Lead 32.4.4 Subcategory D Leclanche 32.4.5 Subcategory G Zinc Battery 32.4.6 Subcategory E Lithium Battery...

Azni Idris Katayon Saed and Yung Tse Hung Contents

15.1 Introduction 15.2 Sanitary Landfill 15.3 Leachate 15.4 Composition and Characteristics of Leachate 15.4.1 Leachate of Different Age 15.4.2 Leachate in Different Countries 15.5 Leachate Treatment 15.6 Bioremediation Methods 15.6.1 In Situ and Ex Situ Methods 15.6.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bioremediation 15.6.3 Physiology of Biodegradative 15.6.4 Metabolic Processes 15.6.5 Factors Affecting Bioremediation 15.7 Bioremediation of Landfill Leachate 15.8 Case 15.8.1 Case 1 Anaerobic...

Pollution Prevention Measures

The iron and steel industry needs to opt for technologies that help to either prevent or reduce the generation and discharge of process wastes. The various preventive measures to be adopted for reducing the environmental impacts are as follows 1. Reduction of dust emissions at furnaces by covering iron runners and using nitrogen blankets during tapping of the blast furnace 2. Use of pneumatic transport, enclosed conveyor belts or self-closing conveyor belts, wind barriers and other dust...

Areas of Application

This technology, with only small modifications to conform to local plant conditions, could have immediate application in any viscose rayon plant with soluble zinc in the plant wastestream. The techniques of initially precipitating the impurities, which would prohibit zinc recycle as well as the use of a sludge recirculation process to obtain a dense sludge, are excellent examples of good process engineering being applied to a waste problem. In a broader sense this technology could have...

Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention

This plant has already implemented the following techniques to manage and minimize its wastes 1. The polymer previously used by this plant as a flocculent in the on-site wastewater treatment system has been replaced by magnesium hydroxide in order to reduce the volume of sludge generated and shipped off-site. 2. An acid regeneration system has been installed to regenerate spent pickle liquor for reuse on-site. The type of waste currently generated by the plant, the source of the waste, the...