The Constanta Metropolitan area occupies about 60 km along the Black Sea shoreline (Fig. 28.1). The coast is mainly erosional, with cliffs, and barrier beaches as well. The climate is typical continental with a marine influence along
a 10-15 km wide littoral strip. The average annual temperature is 11.2°C. Precipitation is low (<400 mm per year) and unevenly distributed throughout the year. Constanta city domain is located in the South Dobrogea geological unit, bounded to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault (Fig. 28.2). South Dobrogea has specific plateau features with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. (Fig. 28.3). The Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks [1, 4] outcrop along the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault (Fig. 28.4). The Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian - Senonian) is represented by conglomerates, sandstones, silty marls (Cenomanian + Turonian) and chalk with concretionary chert, sandstones, and conglomerates in the basal part (Senonian). The Sarmatian deposits are well represented consisting mainly of limestones. The Quaternary deposits at the lowest level are reddish in color argillaceous in composition (Lower Pleistocene); overlying this material are about 40 m of loess deposits (Middle - Upper Pleistocene). Recent alluvial sediments are present along the main river valleys.
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