A conceptual model is defined to facilitate understanding of the climate-change effects on water-resource dependent ecosystem services. In this model, the response can be climatic (annual temperature and precipitation), hydrologic (debris flows, flooding, groundwater recharge, water quality), or ecologic (fish and macroinverte-brate index of biotic integrity). It is functionally related to natural and anthropogenic stresses on coupled and nonlinear processes induced by drought, urbanization, and wildfire across land segments and sub-basins. A self-organizing map (SOM) is used to evaluate the various conceptual models.
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