Materials and Methods

Plant samples collected from the contaminated Chernobyl region (Erophila verna (L.) Bess) and a controlled laboratory setting (Arabidopsis thaliana) were dried between paper sheets and then glued to glass slides. All slides were coated with a photo emulsion LM-1 in gel (Amersham - Biosciences, UK) and exposed for 20 days to a temperature +40 C. Afterwards, the slides were inspected for a-particle tracts using a light microscope (firm "Jenaval", Germany) [2]. To study genotoxic-ity, we used three lines of the transgenic plant Arabidopsis thaliana L.; RPD3- gene histonedeacetylase, SIR2-gene coded protein deacetylate histones, SU(VAR) - gene suppressor variation and as reporter marker GUS - gene [3]. The seeds were soaked and grown in water from several lakes and rivers. Water genotoxicity in Allium-assay on induction of chromosome aberration was estimated and soils genotoxicity in Tradescantia-stamen-hair (Tradescantia-SH) assay on gene mutations was evaluated.

The study of mutagenic activity in water samples was carried out on Allium cepa L. seeds (Rashydov et al. 2004; [4]). The frequency of aberrant ana-telophases and mitotic index were scored in percent. Evaluation of total mutagenic activity of soils was performed with Tradescantia clone 02 that is heterozygous for blue/pink alleles in their floral parts [5, 6]. All results were statistically processed, and a comparison between experimental variants and controls were conducted by £2-method. Plants also were collected from Chistogalovka and Chernobyl district villages where we discovered radioactive contamination by isotopes 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+24°pu and 241Am up to 30 kBq/m2. Measurement of the radionuclide 90Sr was done using the method of settling and extinction analysis [7]. Measurements of specific activity 137Cs in the soil and biological material samples was carried out using the gamma-spectrometry method. Spectrometry calibration was done using a standard loose gage EM66 with poured consistence 1.1 g/cm3 with uncertainty of the specific activity radionuclide 137Cs was 7% 2a.

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