Introduction

The Tbilisi-Baku-Ceyhan pipeline is of course very beneficial for the country of Georgia. At the same time, even after its opening, there are intensive discussions on the possibility of ecological catastrophe in the case of its damage (spilling) at some areas.

Seismic Monitoring Centre, Ilia State University, 77, Nuthubidze Str., 0177 Tbilisi, Georgia e-mail: [email protected]

T. Chelidze and N. Zhukova

Mikheil Nodia Institute of Geophysics, 1, M. Alexidze Str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia P. Malik

Department of Hydrogeology & Geothermal Energy SGUDS, Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Mlynska dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava 11, Slovakia

T. Vitvar

Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna, Austria

Fig. 29.1 Geological map of study area

One of such most complicated and extremely responsible sections lies within the geomorphologically dangerous Borjomi area, where the problem is connected with possible pollution of drinking groundwater source from lava layer at Bakuriani-Tsikhisjvari area by oil-products.

The section of the pipeline, situated on the southern periphery of the village Tsikhisjvari, is about 0.5 km apart of the stripe where the Quaternary lava formation comes out into the surface (Fig. 29.1). This is the recharge area for the breccias aquifer formation, which underlies the lava formation [1-3]. The precipitated surface waters are released in the form of a group of large springs in the areas of the villages Sadgeri, Daba and Tsemi [4-6]. The resort Borjomi is mainly supplied with water from a large spring situated on the right part of the deep and narrow gorge of the river Borjomula. It is about 7 km from the centre of the resort. The local name of the spring is "Tsisqvilis Tskaro" (the mill spring) and it is also called "Sadgeri spring".

The earlier data of the electric prospecting show that the main water flow under the lava takes place 180 m below the surface, within the early Quaternary alluvial sediments of the paleo-channel of the river Borjomula [7]. Two opinions are considered about ecological situation of this area. First, presented by expert of PB, professor J. Lloyd [8], the part of the water, infiltrated in the andesite-basalts of the lava is, naturally, discharged in the Borjomula, Gujareti and Tsemula river-beds and its outflows are on the slopes of river gorges, as shown on the diagram (Fig. 29.2). Second, presented by Prof. of Georgian Polytechnic University U. Zviadadze [9], the bulk of the infiltrated water that moves further down reaches the waterproof layer (in this case the Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene clay layer) and then moves towards the large Borjomula-Gujareti interfluves sheet.

Fig. 29.2 Hydrodynamical scheme

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