Four types of water are present in the study area: surface water, phreatic water, medium-depth groundwater (Sarmatian aquifer), and deep groundwater (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer). Surface water occurs in response to several springs occurring at the base of the slope of Constanta cliffs (showing slight influences from the sewerage system). The phreatic (unconfined) aquifer occurs at the base of the loessoid deposits which are underlain by impervious red clay overlapping the Sarmatian limestones (Fig. 28.3). Groundwater is mainly potable, but the pumping rates are low, around 1 l/s.
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